Second, the low number of frames around urbanisation as a causal factor could be worrying considering the high rate of urban growth in Nigeria and understanding such growth from the point of view of natural hazards such as flooding (Douglas et al. https://doi.org/10.5539/jsd.v5n7p69, Beckert J (2010) How do fields change? In a developing country like Nigeria, there are still questions around lessons that can be learnt from understanding the narratives of policy actors, to unravel the complex nature of strategies and policy directions in managing urban floods. There is a need for reorientation and engagement of all actors and an understanding of the limits of engineered approaches (Johnson et al. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2010.06.009, Maddison DJ (2007) The perception of and adaptation to climate change in Africa vol paper 4308. This aligns with the observation of Adelekan and Asiyanbi (2016), that there has been a shift in balance from structural to non-structural approaches in flood risk management in Lagos—Nigeria’s most populous city, and further underscores the need to rethink the idea that developing countries are reliant on structural measures to control floods. Better discussion aiding understanding of contemporary thinking and local realities will aid policy-making and policy implementation in the Nigerian context, perhaps through the design of a ‘Nigerian policy on flooding’ which currently does not exist. Although there was a framing around inadequate infrastructure as cause of flooding (19 frames, 10%), this does not explain the high number of frames suggesting engineered solutions to the problem. In many instances, socio-economic efforts designed to ameliorate impacts can take years to be realised. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci3020272, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2013) Emergency appeal operation update Nigeria: floods vol 2. Often underlying such argument is a lack of distinction between causative factors, driving forces and impacts. The crux of the argument is that actors’ narratives often hinge on the construction of their frames. This poses a challenge for contemporary flood management, which places emphasis on behavioural measures (Fazey et al. Therefore, for example, there could be two officials in a news article emphasising the same frame and this would count only as one. Indeed, in Nigeria we are providing humanitarian assistance to millions relief and in 1ÿÿ camps and those afflicted by terrorism, drought, floods and other natural disasters. Analysis was extended beyond this main focus of the paper to also compile comprehensive data on incidence and impacts of flooding in Nigerian cities, since this could easily be collated from the news articles sourced in the study. 2010). When these defences fail, emergency measures such as sandbags or portable inflatable tubes are used. This is not surprising as it aligns with governments’ narrative that flood can be prevented; hence, action must be taken to prevent any further incidence. 3, pp. A review of these to assess for relevance reduced the number of articles to 462, of which we found that about 68% were duplicates, often repeating the same statements and in some cases verbatim reports. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. 2008). Available at http://www.ifrc.org/docs/Appeals/12/MDRNG01402.pdf, http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Nigeria%20flood.pdf, Jalayer F, De Risi R, Kyessi A, Mbuya E, Yonas N (2015) Vulnerability of built environment to flooding in African cities. That is for river flooding. This study analysed newspaper articles to understand how actors (government, local community, corporate, multilateral and NGOs) have framed perceived underlying causes and solutions to urban flooding in Nigeria. Secondly, we examined and categorised these texts into pre-determined frames. Polit Geogr 27(3):322–338. Int J Soc Sci Humanit Rev 4(2):111–124. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822381815-003, Hansen A (2010) Environment, media and communication. The narratives of government, local communities and businesses align with the premise that flooding can and should be prevented whilst that of multilateral and business actors champion adaptation strategies on the basis that flooding is inevitable and hence more energy should be directed at ‘living with water’—emergency response, damage reduction and the aftermath. Accessed 13 Mar 2017, Thompson M, Warburton M (1985) Decision making under contradictory certainties: how to save the Himalayas when you can’t find out what’s wrong with them. This should also include promoting the benefits of mainstreaming resilience beyond the management of disaster that underlies the new approaches (Friend et al. A sandal vendor pushes his cart through the flooded streets of Maiduguri, Nigeria, on July 5, 2017. Newspaper articles would not yield this full breadth of data needed; therefore, discourse analysis was not undertaken in this study. /ID [<28bf4e5e4e758a4164004e56fffa0108><28bf4e5e4e758a4164004e56fffa0108>] The strategies currently practiced or suggested as solutions by governmental actors mainly target structural (102 frames) and institutional (106 frames) approaches (Table 2). Available at https://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/08/abia-lacks-capacity-handle-emergency-flood-disaster-ssg/. No serious flood can come now; it should be after many years. Their lack of preparedness may be related to lack of funding and the greater readiness of government and agencies to provide post-disaster funding over resources for pre-disaster preparedness. For instance, whilst urban centres in developed countries where the multilateral, nongovernment and business interests originate from may have systems and institutions that ensure stricter adherence to laws and regulations, many developing countries struggle more with this and compliance may be the starting point for most discourse on urban flood management. ​http://www.unn.edu.ng/publications/files/12041_An_Analysis_of_the_Influence_of_the_Nigerian_Mass_Media_on_Public_Understanding_of_Climate_Change.pdf, Babanyara YY, Usman HA, Saleh UF (2010) An overview of urban poverty and environmental problems in Nigeria. The narratives are structured according to the following questions. nigeria-ne_floods_26_august_2019.pdf ; This report is produced by OCHA Nigeria in collaboration with humanitarian partners. J Disaster Risk Reduct 7:154–164. Premium Times 23 August [Online]. Therefore, this paper adopts the principle that frames illuminate narratives (Crow and Lawlor 2016). In 2017, floods affected 250,000 people in the eastern-central region In 2016, 92,000 were displaced and 38 died In 2015, more than 100,000 were displaced , with 53 deaths Risk Anal 23:567–574. Flooding is a yearly occurrence in Nigeria and is expected to increase due to climate change. A similar approach, adjudged as successful, has been adopted in South Africa (Viljoen et al. Environ Urban 20(1):187–205. /T 994799 An example of string and terms searched include flood* and (urban* or city or state*) and (infrastructure* or resident* or home*) and YR (2012–2016). For instance, the dominance of the need for government policies within multilateral organisations’ narratives could lead to practices among such organisations operating in Nigeria, whereby they will offer governments ‘financial aid conditionalities’ for them to adopt policies (mostly based on western ideologies) in return for bilateral and multilateral donor grants. Thus, actors may perceive that if some human factors were not present, flooding would not occur, irrespective of the quantity of rainfall. In: David P, Maxwell EM (eds) Agenda setting: readings on media, public opinion, and policymaking. exacerbate flooding and submersion of coastal lands (Akande et al., 2017; Ebele and Emodi, 2016). To ensure that we do not dwell on articles whereby news organisation reframes the narratives of key actors, we focus mainly on where direct quotes have been reported as a way to differentiate between media framing and the framing of the actors we have analysed. In: Proceedings of Post-Graduate Conference on Discourse Analysis, Bristol. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 12(5):787–797. In another instance, a local indicated he is ready to die rather than respond to the warning by emergency agency: “I have been living all my life here where do I go from here and what do I fall back on to fend for my family? The study also identified areas of potential consensus and conflict between direct actors such as government and local communities on the one hand and funders on the other. 2010; Van Koppen 2003). image copyright Getty Images. More Than 100,000 People Have Been Displaced By Flooding In Nigeria. We have changed the way we are now doing our roads” (Vanguard 2013). Water Resour Dev 21(4):561–575. Nearly 2,800 households have been displaced. stream In 1993 Thus, we have made a distinction between a media frame by the journalist and the frame used by a policy actor group within a media report. This paper follows a growing body of literature investigating flooding and the media (Bohensky and Leitch 2014; Devitt and O’Neill 2017; Rinne and Nygren 2016). This may then lead to situations whereby it has been observed that governments collect the funds and claim to invest in policies but yet the problem still persists (Agrawal 2007). https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2014.989192, Federal Government of Nigeria (2013) Nigeria: post-disaster needs assessment 2012 floods. 2015). Finally, since the role perceived causation of floods and other extremes of climate plays in policy strategies has yet to be thoroughly scrutinised (Bohensky and Leitch 2014), we explored if there is any link between how actors frame causes and response or strategies around which actors frame their narratives. These are strategies that align most and give the strongest indication of preparedness for flooding. New Media Mass Commun 5:22–30. This was commonly put down to ‘unexplained increase or high rainfall’ (13 frames) and ‘rise in water levels’ (especially articles reporting on coastal cities and those along the Niger-Benue River). More than 100 people have died in floods after Nigeria's two major rivers burst their banks, authorities say. 0000013677 00000 n 2011). Daily Trust, 15 August [Online]. It is suggested that frames simplify the discursive space and are the medium through which an actor construct their narratives. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-1431-201, Nelson TE, Clawson RA, Oxley ZM (1997) Media framing of a civil liberties conflict and its effect on tolerance. 2014; Nkwunonwo et al. However, this research differs from previous studies not only in focusing on a new case in Nigeria but in disaggregating articles based on the frames used by actors and not necessarily the framing by reporter/journalists. /E 304266 The second which is held by the local actors also emphasises the human causes of flooding; however, the solutions championed cut across all three adaptation strategies. Droughts have also become a constant in Nigeria, and are expected to continue in Northern Nigeria, arising from a decline in precipitation and rise in temperature (Amanchukwu et al., 2015; Olapido, 2010). According to Ayansina et al., (2009); the seasonal and annual rainfall variability in some parts of Nigeria 0000018141 00000 n Sage, California, Taylor JG, Stewart TR, Downton M (1988) Perceptions of drought in the Ogallala Aquifer region. Structural measures rely on engineered, technological and ecosystem-based investments to reduce vulnerability. https://www.scribd.com/document/338564425/Frame-Analysis-as-a-Discourse-Method-Framing-Climate-Change-Politics-Mat-Hope, Hutter G, Leibenath M, Mattissek A (2014) Governing through resilience? In Niger State, about 25 persons were reported dead as a result of flooding. 2016). Effects of Flooding on Amassoma Flood Plain Phytoplankton Niger Delta, Nigeria Akankali, J.A. There is a suggestion by McBeth et al. This is a similar trend to the perception of governmental actors. www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/CER/article/view/12140, Agency Reporter (2016) Obiano sets up 28 IDPs in readiness for flooding. /Root 36 0 R This probably could be a pointer to the need for Nigerian cities to place considerable emphasis on public consultation and engagement in urban flood management. Thus, frame analysis offers an opportunity to analyse part of an account and as such is most relevant to this study. https://doi.org/10.5539/jgg.v5n3p216, Mosadomi W (2016) Floods: we are ready to die than leave our farmlands, fishes—defiant villagers. Thus, the framing of causal factors of urban flooding among local community actors is dominantly around anthropocentric factors. 2012) that focus on identifying causes, is central to developing strategies that tackle environmental problems. Now rising is the threat of water-related diseases, such as cholera and acute watery diarrhoea, which are easily spread through contaminated floodwater. In Nigeria, the flood will still continue, especially downstream Kogi State. Whilst a high proportion of causal frames (21%) referred to high or unexplained rainfall, which is an indication of climate-related causes, on only two frames do actors directly link causal factors to climate change. However, floods is not peculiar to Nigeria, it occurs worldwide. However, the majority of these studies are for cities in developed regions, whilst far less is known about how flooding issues are framed within local and national media in developing countries and the consequent policy implications. 2001) and Ireland (The Office of Public Works 2004). The Secretary to the Abia Government said. 2012). Eur J Commun 16(4):523–544. Vanguard 24 September [online]. 1, Abowei J.F.N 2 and CHARLES, E 2* 1Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University,Wilberforce Clim Dev 3(1):7–20. Carmin et al. Public Underst Sci 23(4):454–471. urban centres, including specific state names and their capitals/urban centre by name) and infrastructural components of interest (roads, bridges, schools, etc.). Government policies and educational and social services were the dominant suggested solutions. The next section draws upon frames of actors who have commented on urban flooding in Nigeria from 2012 to September 2016, their perceived causes of flooding (human and climate related) and practiced or proposed solutions to the problem (institutional, structural or societal). Thus, understanding of flooding issues should be context-based and incorporate appreciation of how local actors perceive underlying issues, rather than from representations that may not necessarily reflect local realities. In 1963, according to the national census held that year, Lagos had a population of 665,246 while Ibadan had 627,881 inhabitants. These sources were collected through comprehensive and extensive searching using databases such as ProQuest and Internet-based search engines (i.e. The last 7 days rainfall accumulation (data … trailer A total of 37 million people were impacted and the disaster displaced 2.1 million, killed 363, left over 18,200 injured and destroyed or damaged more than 618,000 houses (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2013; United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 2012). Similarly, scholars have shown that policy actors can use the media to (in)directly shape policy processes and outcomes (Crow and Lawlor 2016; Robinson 2001). Available at http://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/news/panic-accross-nigeria-as-flood-threaten/106485.html#Q3Qy18Zwd90uHkEK.99. (2015)—structural, institutional and societal frames. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-16-349-2016, Nyong A, Adesina F, Elasha BO (2007) The value of indigenous knowledge in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies in the African Sahel. This will entail a policy shift that may also depend upon changes or realignment in existing laws and regulations to make them fit for purpose (i.e. 89, Thisday 51, Vanguard 76 and Punch 58. Philos Trans Ser A Math Phys Eng Sci 360(1796):1527–1530. Nigeria’s urban population is expected to continue to grow relatively fast in the coming decades (Jiang and O’Neill 2017). 0000007342 00000 n In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, flooding has been linked to natural causes, urbanisation and … Available at https://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/06/lagos-blames-residents-persistent-flooding/. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 16(2):349–369. /Prev 994787 To determine the spatial flooding situation and the degree of the city's susceptibility to flooding in Calabar, south-south of Nigeria, Inah et al. As such, adaptation strategies are those that promote anticipatory actions to reduce the expected damage from imminent flooding. Routledge, New York, Fazey I, Wise RM, Lyon C, Câmpeanu C, Moug P, Davies TE (2016) Past and future adaptation pathways. These include print media (newspapers, news magazines), broadcast news (radio and television) and, more recently, the Internet (online newspapers, news blogs, etc.). geographic coverage, reporting narratives of actors rather than journalist opinion, etc). The dominance of engineered and law and regulation was evident within the local communities’ narratives, although in this case engineered was more dominant than laws and regulations. There was also one frame referring to heavy rainfall (climate-related factor) as a cause of flooding (Table 1). In: Fischer F, Forester J (eds) The argumentative turn in policy analysis and planning. For instance, a Flood Relief and Rehabilitation committee was established with membership drawn from corporate, government, religious, non-governmental and multilateral organisations (Federal Government of Nigeria 2013). Correspondence to This engagement should start with understanding the factors underlying causes of flooding in Nigerian cities and probably comprehension of uncertainties surrounding causes of flooding. Reg Environ Change 18, 1145–1159 (2018). The first is that in only two frames do local actors directly link causal factors to climate change. July 9, 2017 This article is more than 2 years old. Often, multiple causes are indicated within one article. vol 25, vol Book, Whole. The current flood disasters witnessed in Nigeria could be said to be a disaster foretold! Periodic floods occur on many rivers, forming a surrounding region known as flood plain. 2011). � R � � &. 2013). It has been suggested that various environmental laws and regulations in Nigeria fail mainly because they are top-down and have no recourse to citizen participation (Etemire 2015; Olowoporoku 2016). infrastructure and management. An important step will be in the collaborative design of an urgently needed ‘Nigerian policy on flooding’ which currently does not exist. Meanwhile the flood situation in neighbouring Adamawa state … This is noteworthy and may be an indication that both governmental and local actors either undervalue or perceive difficulty in getting people to act or to change their behaviour to meet flood management outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1111/ropr.12187/full, Devereux E (2013) Understanding the media, 3rd edn. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Mr Adeyemi Abidemi, the Permanent Secretary, Lagos State Ministry of Environment, on Tuesday, said the State Government would soon make flooding a thing of the past in the state. The 2017 Benue State flooding took place in September 2017 in Central Nigeria. It has been suggested that the way we frame an issue is a reflection of our perception (Kahneman and Tversky 1984); as such, our frames are hardly ‘innocent’ but a reflection of our values (Steinberg 2007). Broadly speaking, there are three main types of news media. The range of frames around flooding in Nigerian cities was identified and compared among various actor groups. There was departure from the foregoing narratives and introduction of a new frame under the multilateral organisation actors. Available at https://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/09/floods-ready-die-leave-farmlands-fishes-defiant-villagers/. /Length 438 Our finding shows disparities in the narratives of actors which could be potential for conflict in flood management. Now rising is the threat of water-related diseases, such as cholera and acute watery diarrhoea, which are easily spread through contaminated floodwater. Whilst the decline in number of relevant articles in 2014 might be due to the relatively lower flood incidence that year, the number of articles per month shows consistency with annual frequency of rainfall, with the wet season months of July to September having the highest number of articles. However, frames suggesting the adoption of behavioural measures are low among local actors. Available at https://guardian.ng/news/victims-of-2012-flood-disaster-in-lokoja-send-sos-to-governor/. On September 10, 2017 7:44 am In News by vanguard. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.12.003, Müller M (2017) The world according to Israeli newspapers: representations of international involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The majority of the government frames and actions are post flood and largely reactive to a flood incident. Two Nigerian cities which provide veritable examples of this new problem of urban flooding are Ibadan and Lagos, the two largest cities in Nigeria. This line of thought, underlying many scientific models, such as ‘drivers–pressure–state–impact–response’ (DPSIR) (Smeets and Weterings 1999) and source–pathway–receptor (SPR) (Narayan et al. A wider analysis of media narratives covering other types of news media, grey literature, local, national and international, could yield better understanding of the frames of actors such as multinationals that are not well captured within the local and national Nigerian news media. The Nation 26 August [online]. J Altern Perspect Soc Sci 4:688–710. In 2007, floods affected 1.5 million people across several countries in Africa , including Uganda, Sudan, Kenya, Ghana, Ethiopia and Niger. This is evident in the fact that monies released after flooding usually far outweigh any allocation to flood adaptation prior to flooding. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, Washington, Miles B, Morse S (2007) The role of news media in natural disaster risk and recovery. There were 10 frames referring to human causes and 11 frames referring to climate-related causes. However, in Nigeria as in other contexts, flood policy is still generally a contested arena among actors, bringing about in particular debates around appropriate strategies for flood management (Ford et al. First, how are the causes of flooding explained by the actor(s) within the news article? 2017). By Reality Check team BBC News Heavy seasonal rains are a regular feature of life in Nigeria and towns close to the country’s main rivers are partic­ularly vulnerable. This is interesting if considered that locals and government who are direct actors favour different approaches, i.e. Soc Sci 3(2):272–287. On the other hand, narratives around strategies and solutions are more even with 32% of overall frames suggesting structural pathways, 38% suggesting institutional pathways and 30% suggesting societal pathways (Table 2). The perceived cause of flooding was put down mainly to ‘disregard for laws and regulations’ such as ‘urban and regional planning laws’, ‘indiscriminate dumping of refuse, which often blocked drains and other water channels’ and ‘construction on drainage lines’, which was identified in 48 frames (Table 1). %���� OIL SPILL Oil spill disaster is caused either by tanker break up at sea, illegal discharged and tanker clean up. However, when considered individually, the details reveal some subtle issues. Statistical, standardized principal component and water quality inde An engineered approach was more frequently mentioned. Ensuring that communities engage in behavioural approaches is especially important because connected with the adaptation narrative is the standpoint that flood risk cannot be either avoided or eradicated, and citizens should accept more personal responsibility. 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