Theories of First Language Acquisition - . (a) Consequentialism (and utilitarianism) Whether an act is morally right depends solely on consequences or the goodness of consequences. Deontology names a type of ethical theory that judges human practices based on whether they are consistent with certain duties that the theory holds as intrinsically moral. 6. Slideshow 2389217 by krista Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Criticisms of Kant’s ethics: • Kant’s ethics is too extreme insofar as it excludes emotion from moral decision making and makes duty paramount. Ethical Theories • Ethical theory is means by which we justify a particular ethical decision. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Types of egoism: • Personal egoists: Pursue their own self-interest but do not make the universal claim that all individuals should do the same. • Believed in good will, that good actions proceed from right intentions, those inspired by a sense of duty. INTRODUCTION . Ethical theories 1. Top writers. 3 3 Chapter ETHICAL THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES Understanding the Fundamentals of Moral Philosophy Business Ethics © You have five patients, each of whom needs a transplant. View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Ethical Theories PPT. outline . Utilitarianism is a moral theory that implements fair choices in an effort to ensure the least amount of harm is done to all parties involved. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, © 2020 SlideServe | Powered By DigitalOfficePro, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Six points concerning utilitarianism …contd • We should seek to maximize happiness, not only immediately, but in the long run. content. how each theory describes childhood development. Assumes that a system is moral because a majority in a culture decides it is moral. 4.7 (348) Sweet V. Verified writer. Theories of Human Development - . Malaysian Family Physician. A Brief History of Ethical Thought ... British Liner Titanic. View Chapter3.ppt from ACCT 1121 at Kuala Lumpur Infrastructure University College. THE MOST COMMON ETHICAL THEORIES Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Lecture # 3 Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, THE MOST COMMON ETHICAL THEORIES • Ancient Greek – Plato • Medieval – Thomas Aquinas • Immanuel Kant • Rawl Theory Justice • Egoism • Utilitarianism Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Theories of Ethics – Summary Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, 1. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Cardinal Virtue Prudence: • First cardinal virtue, because it is concerned with the intellect. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Criticisms of rule utilitarianism • By sacrificing the priority of the principle of utility, they tend to overestimate the value of rules. normative subjects. 2006;1(2&3):74-76 . THE MOST COMMON ETHICAL THEORIES. Introduction to Ethical Studies An Open Source Reader Lee Archie John G. Archie Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Ethical Relativism…contd • A criticism of this theory is that an action usually thought to be unethical would not be unethical if the perpetrator thought it was in fact ethical. • Rational individuals possess a strong contemplative faculty. Ethical Dilemmas and Leadership • Leaders, by definition, seek to bring about change • This means their decisions will affect people • So most of their decisions have an ethical component, even if a small one • Also, other people’s ethical dilemmas are often kicked up to the leader to decide 1. PERSONALITY THEORIES - . • An action is morally wrong if it undermines it. • Egoism ignores blatant wrongs: All patently wrong actions are morally neutral unless they conflict with one’s advantage. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. COMMON ION EFFECT - . Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. • Humanity as an end, never as a means: We must always act in a way that respects human rationality in others and in ourselves. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Formulations of the categorical imperative • Universal acceptability: To determine whether a principle is a moral law, we need to ask whether the command expressed through it is acceptable to all rational agents. traits of moral principles. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. • Attempts to keep us from excess, and, as such, requires the balancing of legitimate goods against our inordinate desire for them. The theory of deontology states that when we have to make ethical decisions, our first thoughts are on our duties and obligations. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Natural Law • Natural Law – The practical reflection or sharing in “eternal reason” that provides humans with objective, changeless, universal rules or general principles of action for ethical and political life. It is a distinctive approach whereby we focus on; • Human character asking the question, “What should I be?” • Ethical life involves envisioning ideals for human life • Embodying those ideals in one’s life. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. • Ambition, desire for honor and glory, moral indignation, and cravings for admiration, all fit under the umbrella of spirit. An ethical theory isn’t necessarily a guide to moral decision-making in hard cases. structural theories: anomie, unequal opportunity, social disorganization, 2.Natural Law Theory-Background by Thomas Aquinas, Formulations of the categorical imperative, Six points concerning utilitarianism …contd. Coherent elements should fit to form a whole ; Consistent no contradictions ; Comprehensive widely applicable ; Systematic based on general principles ; 12 Four kinds of ethical theories. (b) Virtue ethics • Therefore they fail to acknowledge the independent value status of moral and human rights. introduction. As one of the original nurse theorists, King made an enduring impact on nursing education, practice, and research while serving We hope you find what you are searching for! Some ethical theories that influence nursing practice are Consequentialism, Deontology, Ethical Relativism, Utilitarianism theory, Teleology, Virtue ethics, and Justice and equity. ethical theories. Theories of Ethics – Summary. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Lecture # 6 Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, 6. 94 types of ethical theory for them in much the same way they can be good or bad for us. Therefore, the best way to be moral is to constantly seek to improve oneself. Virtue ethics states that only good people can make good moral decisions. Business Ethics. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Theories of the Ego - . Louis P.Pojman Ethics: discovering right and wrong - . cristina e. torres, ph.d. social science professor fercap coordinator. Love relationships fit into this category as well. Theories of War Causation - . Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Aquinas describes the essence of law: • Law is a rule and measure of acts whereby man is induced to act or is restrained from acting: for law is derived from liger (to bind), because it binds one to act. • The goal of life is to actualize one’s true nature together with one’s many innate (essential) potentialities. • We must guard against bias in our utilitarian calculations when our own interests are at stake. Verified writer. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. In scientific theories these assumptions represen… Ethics and Hunger - . • It must be consistent with the principles of subsidiarity • It must not be oppose to eternal law. PROFESSIONALS WITH LEGAL ASPECTS IN COMPUTING 1 Chapter 1 Common Ethical Theories Introduction The formal study of ethics goes back at least two thousand four hundred (2,400) years, traced to the Greek Socrates. 22. Ethics in OR - . Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Ruler-ship and the Natural Law • Natural law should be discovered by the ruler’s reason and applied. methodology. van der dennen. • The categorical imperative: Morality as a system of laws analogous to the laws of physics in terms of their universal applicability. 8. • The principles of justice should be chosen by persons who do not yet know their station in society. THE MOST COMMON ETHICAL THEORIES. sarjerao m engane. • The principle of utility: Actions are morally praiseworthy if they promote the greatest human welfare, and blameworthy if they do not. Traditionally, ethics referred to the philosophical study of morality, the latter being a more or less systematic set of beliefs, usually held in common by a group, about how people should live.Ethics also referred to particular philosophical theories of morality. • The morality of an action depends on whether the maxim (or subjective principle) behind it can be willed as a universal law without committing a logical contradiction. Ancient Greek – Plato Medieval – Thomas Aquinas Immanuel Kant Rawl Theory Justice Egoism Utilitarianism. • Allows to judge correctly what is right and what is wrong in any given situation Justice: • Second cardinal virtue, because it is concerned with the will. Deontology. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. • The moral worth of an action is determined on the basis of its intrinsic features or character, not results or consequences. THE MOST COMMON ETHICAL THEORIES. These approaches may include the four principled approach, (non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy, justice), the four quadrant approach, (medical indications, patient preferences, quality of life, and contextual features), the structured case analysis model by Bowman which refers to the virtuous healthcare practitioner or Seedhouse’s ethical grid. Applying these principles to a company will ensure ethical operation into the future. personality theories. Lecture # 3. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Ruler-ship and the Natural Law…contd • Human law is just and reasonable only if it meets these five criteria: • Lawmaking must be transparent. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, 4 Kinds of Law Aquinas defines “law” in general as “an ordinance of reason for the common good, made by him who has care of the community, and promulgated.” The four kinds of law are: • The Eternal Law • The Natural Law • The Human Law • The Divine Law Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, The Eternal Law • Divine reason and wisdom comprise an eternal law – a law governing the whole creation, a law not made but eternally existing and therefore unknowable to humans entirely, yet the source of all true law on earth. lecture 5. what to expect in this lecture. Common ethical issues in research and publicat ion. • Human Law: True law that is derived from natural law. 4.9 (546) Charlotte. behavioristic approaches: bloomfield, fries, pavlov. chapter 2. main points. • Impersonal egoists: Claim that the pursuit of one’s self-interest should motivate everyone’s behavior. The Titanic Tragedy. • Thus, they must be held in tight check by the powers of reason. Classic Utilitarianism was advocated by such philosophers as Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Objections to egoism • The theory is not sound: The doctrine of psychological egoism is false – not all human acts are selfish by nature, and some are truly altruistic. Lecture # 3. One needs a heart, one a brain, two need one lung each, and one needs a liver. 6U ilitart ians belie , ev speaking a bit roughly, that the right action is the action that maximizes good results. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Kant in an organizational context • The categorical imperative provides a solid standard for the formulation of rules applicable to any business circumstances. Much of the time people accept those ideas without questioning them; they are relatively ‘unconsidered’ or ‘unexamined’. The utilitarianism approach requires that you decide what course of action needs to be done and evaluate the outcomes of each action. • They are still bound by the consequentialist approach to morality, which is to evaluate the worth of various acts in terms of their results. november 2003 j. n. hooker carnegie mellon university.  Concerned with the questions of human moral Instead, in the first instance, it attempts to organize and explain common ethical opinions. 2.1 Western ethical theories 21 2.2 Deontological ethics 23 2.3 Teleological ethics 26 2 ... traditional beliefs commonly held by people in the society in which they live, and so on. Temperance: • It is the fourth cardinal virtue whereas temperance is the restraint of our desires or passions. Overview of Ethical Theories 1. means character. Now the rule and measure of human acts, as is evident from what has been stated above, since it belongs to the reason to direct the end, which is the first principle in all matters of action according to the Philosopher (Aristotle). chapter 2. questions to ask about theories. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. ethical theory utilitarian, kantian, Sociological Theories of Drug Use/Abuse - . introducing students to basic translation theories and. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. This grid consists of a s… Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. A rule of state that is at odds with natural law is no law at all. Theories & Translation (1) - . Samantha. Four of these goals include beneficence, least harm, respect for autonomy, and justice. Ancient Greek – Plato • Plato believed our natural desires are greedy and depraved. Theories of Ethics – Summary. schools & variants johan m.g. 7. Crashed into an iceberg and sank off the coast of Newfoundland ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 19baa-NDQyM Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Virtue ethics-Aristotle Virtues are ways in which we embody ideals. Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Reason • The intellectual, thinking part of the soul that must weigh options, decide between alternatives, and "suppress dangerous urges.“ • Plato clearly puts reason in control of the soul because it acts as good counsel seeking understanding and insight before acting. By far the most common historical variant of consequentialism is Classic Utilitarianism. CD thics Common ethical issues related to HIV/AIDS S Ar am ract 0 605 Vol 5 o 6 Opt-in or opt-out: approaches to HIV testing South Africa is the epicentre of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic.1 Based on a wide range of data, including household and antenatal studies, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that HIV prevalence was 17.8% among 15-49 … Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Pluralistic Moral Code Rule utilitarians argue for a pluralistic moral code on three grounds: • People will make mistakes if they try to calculate the results of every given action in advance. To be virtuous requires knowledge, practice, & consistent effort at character building. Ethics are very important in the business world, but some find it difficult to define business ethics. Business ethics theories include the moral principles or codes a company implements to ensure that all individuals working in the company act with acceptable behavior. The principle of beneficence directs ethical theory to do what is good, which should attempt to engender the largest ratio of good over evil. However, there are a number of principles of ethics that are nearly universal in the business world. • Natural law became a central feature of catholic moral thinking. 1. Ethical Relativism • holds that there is no correct moral code at all times and peoples, that each group has its own morality relative to its wants and values, and that at … • Rule utilitarian's maintain that the utilitarian standard should be applied not to individual actions but to moral codes as a whole. general learning theories. Media in category "Ethical theories" The following 4 files are in this category, out of 4 total. You can change your ad preferences anytime. • Our interactions with others provide core experiences that influence our emotional development. To a layperson some of these words may make sense and others may not. • An action is morally right if it promotes one’s long-term interest. 5. the unconscious, ego psychology & coping with crises sss 571. psychodynamic theory. human acts.-Paul Glenn Ms. Hina Gul, Ethical Theories, Six points concerning utilitarianism: • In choosing between alternative courses of action, we should consider the net worth of happiness vs. unhappiness produced by each course of action. 3. Divine Law • The revealed truths such as the ten commandments and the Sermon on the Mounts that supplement and corrects human fallibility and frailty. Conclusion: Desire is determinative; these are cravings of the highest degree. Ethical Theories Ppt When has this never not happened to anyone, let alone ethical Quin. Embody ideals ethics that are nearly universal in the first instance, attempts! Ev speaking a bit roughly, that the pursuit of one ’ s true nature with. 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