The Punic Wars are some of the most brutal, bloodthirsty wars ever recorded with intense rivalries and everything a historian loves in great stories. However, Rome had to fight for it’s power and position; often against impressive rivals. Hannibal’s troops fought well, especially the veterans placed in the rear line of three, but the 80 Carthaginian war elephants were easily dealt with by Scipio, who had placed his legionaries so as to create channels which allowed the animals to pass through when they charged. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘Mercenary War’ and there was a strong pro-peace party in the city. The raids were hugely successful and devastated the enemy. The First Punic War had been tremendously costly to both sides but Rome’s seemingly inexhaustible resources, especially its capacity to renew large naval fleets meant that, ultimately, Carthage could not compete with the Mediterranean’s newest superpower. It would be a lesson well-learned and repeated again and again by the Roman army, now well-practised at fighting in multiple theatres simultaneously. The Roman and Numidian cavalry then hit Hannibal’s forces in the rear, and victory was theirs. In 264 B.C., Rome became involved in what later became the Punic Wars. The Iberians now gave up the Carthaginian cause and Rome had access to the enemy’s silver mines to boost its war effort. It lasted between 218 and 201 BC. The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, an… the war left Rome in control - for the first time - of Cisapline Gaul, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain (which they decided to keep) - i.e. The most significant and decisive of the three was the second Punic War, where Hannibal nearly succeeded in conquering the Roman world. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage.The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. Second Punic War. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 29 May 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. (Keith Sidwell, 16) The Punic war was broken into, nation-state from defeat in the First Punic War (264–241 BC) to conquer much of Iberia. History (code 01) What were the outcomes of the second Punic War Back in Spain, Scipio Africanus was gaining local allies, and he defeated a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal at Baecula in 208 BCE. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, and it was he who attacked Carthage on home soil, beating Hannibal and delivering final victory. At the beginning of the war both sides had been roughly equal in fighting forces on land. The two commanders actually met in person in a conference where Hannibal perhaps requested a peace settlement but Scipio was probably keen to end the long war with a showpiece battle and earn himself a triumph back in Rome. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? The Mercenary War & The Second Punic War . The result of this spectacular campaign was that most of the city-states of southern Italy defected to the Carthaginian cause, including Italy’s second most important city, Capua. Hannibal had defeated several large Roman armies, but Rome itself, as in the First Punic War, seemed immune to the losses. These were supplemented with sympathetic Gauls from northern Italy and the Carthaginian pressed on regardless. At the time, they were one of the largest wars that had ever taken place. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Then, in 204 BCE, with a force of around 30,000 men and 440 ships, he crossed to North Africa in three days. This huge force moved towards Utica to relieve the siege in 203 BCE. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Further, Carthage could not make war without Rome’s permission, had to recognise the territories of the new Numidian king Masinissa, and pay in reparations to Rome the huge sum of 10,000 talents over the next half century. The two sides did not clash, rather, each established a camp to see out the winter. Outcome- In the Second Punic War, the incomparable Carthaginian general Hannibal attacked Italy and scored extraordinary triumphs at Lake Trasimene and Cannae before his inevitable destruction on acco view the full answer. Under Philip V, the Macedonians proved no match for the Roman general Marcus Valerius Laevinus, and Macedon was forced out of the Adriatic and into a war with the Aetolian Confederacy in north-west Greece. In October 202 BCE, the armies of Hannibal and Scipio met on a plain in western Tunisia near Naraggara. The expedition was not without cost. Tribute in money if not men was extracted from local cities and new silver mines were worked. Last modified May 29, 2016. In the Second Punic War, various Roman commanders faced Hannibal, leader of the forces of Carthaginians, their allies, and mercenaries.Four major Roman commanders made a name for themselves in the following main battles of the second Punic War. Hannibal expected Rome to attack his position in Spain and, indeed, a Roman army was sent there with 60 quinqueremes under the command of P. Cornelius Scipio while another one sailed for Sicily. Carthage was in a difficult situation after the defeat of the First Punic War. Even with the outcomes of the Punic Wars being what they were, their effects on Rome were both positive and negative, ultimately leading to the fall of the Roman Republic. The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean. "Second Punic War." Saguntum was retaken but both Roman commanders, P. Cornelius Scipio and Gn. Hannibal, along with a massive army and the inclusion of elephants, fought a battle against the Roman army at Ticinus, Trebia and Trasimene. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidian kingdoms were drawn into the fighti In addition, Scipio had conquered Tunis. An army of 13,500 men and corps of elephants were redirected by Carthage to Spain instead of Hannibal in Italy. Click card to see definition The Roman fleets and legions achieved victory over the Carthaginians in 241 B.C., adding western Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica to the growing Roman Empire Click again to see term … Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. A Roman army was then defeated in Gaul in 216 BCE, but their fortunes slowly began to improve. Two strategic mistakes which would be regretted by the Carthaginians. Web. Realising they were up against one of history’s greatest commanders, Rome changed tactics and adopted a policy of avoiding Hannibal in direct battle, instead fighting only his allies. Almost inevitably, Mago was unable to join forces with Hannibal and his army was defeated in Cisalpine Gaul in 203 BCE. Hannibal’s mix of Italian veterans and new recruits numbered some 45,000 men and included 2,000 Numidian cavalry from their ally Tychaeus. On Sicily, the Carthaginians lost their useful ally, Syracuse. The difficult journey lost him a significant portion of his army but the losses were more to do with fighting hostile Gallic tribes and desertions than the elements. In 226 BCE Hasdrubal had signed an agreement with Rome, concerned at Carthage’s expanding empire, not to cross the River Ebro in southern Spain, but Hannibal, now in overall command in Spain, was more ambitious. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. Brief history of governance Hannibal had employed his customary tactics of high mobility in the field too and enveloped the enemy while his cavalry attacked the rear. Ancient History Encyclopedia. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. In 264 BC to 146 BC the Romans were involved in a prolonged war with the Carthaginians, known as the Punic War. Remember to cite your sources. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Scipio’s cavalry wings crushed the enemy and the African infantry collapsed. Related Content In typical fashion, the Carthaginian general used the terrain to his advantage, this time putting his 50,000 troops close to the River Aufidus; he constrained the eight legions of the enemy to do likewise and thus restricted their possibility of manoeuvre and gain advantage from their greater numbers. This was the so-called ‘Fabian policy’ after Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, the dictator of 217 BCE, who earned the nickname ‘Cunctator’ (Delayer). The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. Image Credit: shorthistory One of the biggest event of this war was Hannibal Barca’s supreme riseand subsequent defeat. Hannibal and Second Punic War General . Roman influences have a dominating presence on western culture and civilization. The Start of the First Punic War. Battle of Cannae 216 BC. After a period of hesitant peace negotiations, which may only have been offered for Scipio to gain intelligence on the enemy positions, the Roman general divided his force in two and attacked the camps of Syphax and Gisgo at night. Meanwhile, Rome seized control of Sardinia which had been Carthage’s most important source of grain. Cartwright, Mark. (Chris Scarre, 24-25) The word Punic comes from the Latin derivation of the word Punicus which translates to "Carthaginian", referring to the Carthaginian’s Phoenician ancestors. Hannibal’s father had made his son swear never to be a friend of Rome, and with this solid platform of wealth and arms, he did not disappoint for the commander, still only 26, would become Rome’s greatest ever foe. Prior to that, it was the opportunity Romans was waiting for. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. The Carthaginian general was faced with the problem that he simply did not have the manpower to keep control of all his newly acquired territory. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? Neither could Hasdrubal support him from Spain nor Carthage by sea. The answer was Spain. Both Syracuse and Tarentum defected to Carthage in 214 and 212 BCE respectively, but Hannibal was being left without support in Italy. Before Carthage could think about Rome, it first had to deal with the continued unrest closer to home. He supplemented his own force with local recruits and amassed a 50,000-strong army with a corps of 100 elephants. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. The final outcome of the Second Punic War was the defeat of Hannibal and the conquest of Carthage. The theatres of war in Spain, Sicily, and Italy were now almost played out and attention turned to Africa. ... Second Punic War begins. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. He had lost his power over Mediterranean Sea; losing Sicily and the compensation imposed on him by Rome greatly affected his economy. Indeed, the conflict between the two nations of Rome, Implementing A New Paradigm Of Strategic Planning, Howard Gardner 's Theory On Multiple Intelligences, Understanding The Development Of Monotheism. Campaigns of the Second Punic Warby YassineMrabet (GNU FDL). In the summer of 202 BCE, the war was very much back on again and the two sides would clash in one final decisive battle. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. Accordingly, this war has captured, The Punic Wars were clashes between titans and were arguably the largest wars of the time period as the two participants were some of the most powerful nations of the time. Before leaving Spain, however, Hannibal was well aware that Roman forces intended for him would try to meet him there. Causes of the Second Punic War The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean.” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. The battle is referred to as ‘the battle of Zama’ because that town was on Hannibal’s route to the battlefield. In 215 BCE Rome attacked southern Spain, dramatically defeating Hasdrubal at the battle of Ibera in 215 BCE. Scipio marched to meet them, and after three days of merely observing each other, the battle commenced. When Scipio attacked Utica, the city proved more resilient than expected, and Carthage, meanwhile, assembled an army under Gisgo, son of Hasdrubal. The outbreak of the Second Punic War began when Hannibal moved north across Ebro to begin his historic march over the Alps. Battle of Mylae. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. The Second Punic War (also called the Second Carthaginian War) was the second of three conflicts, known collectively as “The Punic Wars,” fought between the ancient powers of Rome and Carthage — a powerful city and imperial entity located across the Mediterranean from Southern Italy in modern-day Tunisia. The Romans took over the Carthaginian mantle as the rulers of the seas and so, if Carthage were to wrest control back from its arch-enemy, it would have to fight on land, and that required money, lots of it. Hannibal surprised them by deciding to invade Italy. The clock was ticking and Rome had time on their side. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal … In the following paragraphs, Carthage and Rome will be described in how each came to power, as well as the outcome of the conflict in terms of strength and increase in naval power. - 202 B.C., Hannibal decides to attack Rome, Sneaks through Gaul with 60,000 troops and 60 Elephants, Wreaks havoc in Rome for 15 years, Roman general named Scipio attacked Carthage making Hannibal come back to Carthage Hannibal seemed unstoppable. The consul Publius Scipio had been assigned an army with which to invade Spain and defeat Hannibal. These commanders were Sempronius, at the Trebbia River, Flaminius, at Lake Trasimene, Paullus, at Cannae, and Scipio, at Zama. Rome forced Carthage to pay for damages after the war, so Carthage had very little left to pay the mercenaries. Rome entered the Second Punic War as the dominant city in Italy..., yet emerged as a world power'. In the Shadow of the Furies: A Novel of the Second Punic War, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. It began in 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C. ‘God has given to man no sharper spur to victory than contempt of. The forces involved, and the casualties suffered by both sides, were far … Scipio immediately defeated a contingent of 500 Carthaginian cavalry and then had his army boosted by the arrival of Masinissa’s Numidian cavalry. He secured Spain with an army of about 16,000 men under the command of Hasdrubal and took 80,000 infantry, 12,000 Numidian and Iberian cavalry and a number of elephants with him on his march. Rise and Fall of Hannibal. Cartwright, Mark. The Second Punic War or the Hannibalic War lasted sixteen years from 218 BC to 202 BC and was fought between the two major powers of Rome and Carthage. Rome was reeling but Hannibal was on his own, and he fatefully decided not to attack Rome itself. Scipio Africanus the Elderby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 bce) The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. There followed another quick victory against a 4,000-strong Carthaginian cavalry force. Rome had a far superior navy, but Carthage had the best commander in Hannibal. This war had the potential to completely alter the course of history. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Carthaginian War Elephantsby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? https://www.ancient.eu/Second_Punic_War/. First, Carthage was one of Rome’s rivals that tended to be a thorn in their side, at least for a time. 20,000 Carthaginians had fallen while Rome suffered fewer than 5,000 fatalities. Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. Rome might have feared a land battle but they were still masters of the seas, and this meant that Hannibal could not be resupplied. In the so-called Truceless War (also Mercenary War) between 241 and 237 BCE, Carthage had to put down a joint rebellion of mercenary troops, understandably upset at not having been paid for their efforts in the first Punic War, Libyan groups, and several cities such as Tunis and Utica. In spite of the fact that most Roman senators wanted a good rationalization for face-to-face meeting, they couldn’t reject the, encountered many wars and battles, they didn’t win all of their battles; however, they’ve learned through their failures to improve upon the progress of their society. Carthage had been colonized by the Phoenicians, and came to be a powerful capital, While the governments of Rome and Carthage around the times of the Punic wars might look similar as drawn in organisational chart fashion, reflecting structural similarities, there were important differences in the allocation of responsibilities, concepts of citizenship and the scope and exercise of power. First Punic War - Roman victory - Carthage lost control of Sicily to Rome Second Punic War - Roman victory - Carthage lost control of all of it's territory apart from the city itself. 50,000 of the enemy were killed compared to 5,700 on Carthaginian side, most of those being Gauls. Hannibal desperately tried to conquer a port city, notably Neapolis (Naples) and Tarentum (Taranto), but all attempts failed, as did repeated attacks on Nola. The Romans also took possession of southern Spain. The First Punic War had shown that Rome could not be defeated from the outside, but perhaps fighting in its own territory and stirring up rebellions, it might be defeated from within. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The Second Punic War, fought between the Romans and the Carthaginians is no exception. Accordingly, Hamilcar Barca was despatched in 237 BCE to expand Carthaginian territory, which he did, establishing his base at Gades (Cadiz) and founding a new city of Acra Leuce. Moreover, this was the first time that Rome had expanded into territories outside of Italy which was pivotal in the development of the Roman Republic, and furthermore the Rome Empire, as it marks the beginning of an imperial Roman power (Rickard, 2001). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Carthage made overtures for peace in 203 BCE, perhaps only to allow Hannibal time to come back home as indicated by their treatment of a Roman transport fleet blown off course in 202 BCE. this was the beginning of a real 'empire'. Study showcased by Morey, William C. (1901), stated that the Carthage was angered that the Numidians had been permitted to encroach upon their country, and in return, Carthage brought together a small a military group to attack Numidia without Roman authorization. Cartwright, M. (2016, May 29). There were many potential causes of the Second Punic War, but the harsh result of the First Punic War was the most influential factor in the start of the Second Punic War. ” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. Hannibal once again released Italian prisoners but dealt harshly with Roman captives to emphasise he was at war with only the latter and local communities were welcome to join him. The outcome of these wars determined the nation to dominate the Mediterranean for years to come, and the largest of the wars was the Second Punic War. In 205 BCE, after being appointed consul, Scipio crossed the Mediterranean to Sicily and strengthened his army. This may have been because he lacked outside support but also because it was probably never his intention to annihilate Rome. A similar sized army was sent in an unsuccessful attempt to take Sardinia back for Carthage. Rome Builds Navy Fleet. Without a significant fleet and having lost their strategically important fortresses in Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia, the Carthaginians had to look elsewhere for a source of money to fund their armies. The outcome of the wars established the enduring legacy of the Roman Empire as one of the greatest in the whole of history. Expert Answer . He soon proved a brilliant field commander who applied his intellect and martial skills to the singular end of winning battles. The Punic Wars were arguably the most significant armed struggle in all of antiquity. Most of the leadership in Cartha… He had set off with 90,000 soldiers and 12,000 cavalry, and on arrival he had at his disposal only 20,000 men and half his original cavalry. The Romans insisted on Carthage giving up its entire fleet (except a paltry 10 ships), all elephants, and all Roman prisoners. Hasdrubal escaped to Italy but the remains of his army were defeated at the Metaurus River the following year. The Mercenary War (240-237 BC) Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after the First Punic War, even though Carthage lost the war to Rome. Introduction The strategy of Fabius, although interrupted occasionally by zealous commanders eager for glory in their one year of office as consul, was slowly working and, relentlessly, the Romans backed Hannibal into an ever-smaller pocket so that by 207 BCE he controlled only Bruttium. The Second Punic War was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. The expected break-up of Rome’s hegemony and a mass Gaul uprising did not happen. The influence of the Punic Wars on Western Civilization. Rome then could establish firm control over the island by 210 BCE. This action had the consent of the Carthaginian government but it would prove one move too far for the Romans who, having by now dealt with the troublesome northern Gauls and Illyria, demanded Hannibal be handed over for suitable punishment. By now Carthage controlled half of the Iberian Peninsula. These defeats now put the city of Carthage itself in danger and necessitated the return of Hannibal from Italy to defend the homeland. This force consisted of 30,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry, and Gisgo was almost immediately joined by the Numidian Syphax with his army of 50,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. Rome’s, interpretations and perceptions, Hannibal is infamous for leading the Carthaginian army and a squadron of elephants athwart the Southern European region and the Alps Mountains against the Roman Empire, who were manifested as the most powerful army, in the Second Punic War. Once again, though, Rome’s seemingly inexhaustible resources in men, ships, and money, combined with skills on the battlefield and command of the seas, had ensured Rome could replenish losses more easily than Carthage. The Start of the Second Punic War 218 BC. At the same time in Italy, Hannibal was still holding out despite facing armies twice the size of his own force. 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