New government data indicate the number of Christians in China to be significantly higher than it previously reported. Attrition was high because of health problems and mental breakdowns. Prominent among the China missionaries were idealistic and well-educated young men and women who were members of the Oberlin Band, the Cambridge Seven, and the Student Volunteer Movement. As a consequence, he was arrested by the Japanese troops, who accused him of espionage. [42], Missionaries affected Chinese body culture not only through discouraging footbinding. A faithful and honest description of Chinese Christianity will be nuanced and somewhat paradoxical, not definitive and one-sided. [55], Criticism and calls for reform came from within the missionary community. He and James Laidlaw Maxwell appealed to the London Missionary Conference of 1888 and the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of 1910 to condemn the trade. Due to social custom, the women of China were reluctant to be treated by male doctors of Western medicine. Many individuals from the People’s Republic of China ... To help establish the Church in ways appropriate to local circumstance, missionaries involved with online proselyting which crosses international borders should refer international online investigators to the mission and missionaries where the online investigators live. However, Dr. Manget was not willing to leave China. [2]. The early unmarried female missionaries were required to live with missionary families. Women missionaries were customarily paid less than men. Wives served as unpaid "assistant missionaries." The 1859 Awakening in Britain and the work of J. Hudson Taylor (1832–1905) helped increase the number of missionaries in China. St. John’s University, Jamaica, New York. Before the time of the Chinese Republic, they would have otherwise received no formal schooling.[13]. A blow to the morale of China missionaries was their low rate of success in the achievement of their primary objective: the conversion of Chinese to Christianity. The Jesuits believed that they probably Known as the Hackett Medical College for Women (夏葛女子醫學院),[46][47] it was located in Guangzhou, China, and was enabled by a large donation from Mr. Edward A.K. Matilda S. Calder, born on May 16. He established a printing press for Christian literature. However, they have been engaged in development of schools and hospitals in most rural parts of China. Roberts became an advisor to the Taipings but fell out with them in 1862, fleeing for his life and denounced them.[10]. Beginning with the arrival of Robert Morrison in 1807 and ending in 1953 with the departure of Arthur Matthews and Dr. Rupert Clark of the China Inland Mission, thousands of foreign Protestant missionaries and their families, lived and worked in China to spread Christianity, establish schools, and work as medical missionaries. Liberal missionaries welcomed the opportunity to participate in the development of the Chinese nation, but the mission enterprise was attacked. Beginning in 1807, with the arrival of Robert Morrison of the London Missionary Society and ending in 1953 with the departure of Arthur and Wilda Mathews of the China Inland Mission, foreign Protestant missionaries lived and worked in China.The following is a list by agency of such missionaries who were specifically noteworthy to history. The Chinese had recognized the rights of the missionaries only because of the superiority of Western naval and military power. He lobbied the British Parliament to stop the opium trade. Morrison's early work mostly consisted of learning Classical Chinese, Cantonese, and Nanjing Mandarin; compiling a bidirectional dictionary based on the 1714 Kangxi Dictionary; and translating the Bible. This is a list of notable Protestant missionaries in China by agency. Hello, Sign in. They established and developed schools and hospitals practicing Western medicine. Despite their preponderance in numbers, female missionaries, married and unmarried, were often excluded from participation in policy decisions within missionary organizations which were usually dominated by men. [57], In 1934 John and Betty Stam were murdered by Communist soldiers. It includes texts both in Chinese and in Syriac. After much negotiation, the Chinese Government agreed to provide 9 acres of land, while the Foundation provided US$30,000 to build a hospital in Huzhou. Of the eighty-five Wilson College alumnae who became missionaries in foreign countries, twenty spent time in China. An 1888 Baptist conference affirmed that "women's work in the foreign field must be careful to recognize the headship of men." Wives served as unpaid "assistant missionaries." Bays, in his introduction to “A New History of Christianity in China” notes that he and other scholars have recognized that this important subject of Chinese Christianity has been a relatively understudied subject. As he lay dying, the government signed an agreement to end the opium trade within two years. There were over 8,000 missionaries in China at its height, which was the 1920’s. Mortality among children born to missionary couples was estimated to be three times that of infant mortality in rural England. Novelist and missionary Pearl S. Buck for example, returned to the United States in 1932 to ask "Is There a Case for Foreign Missionaries?." Christian missionaries in china, Collectif, Chronicle Books Libri. [41], The rise to prominence of women missionaries also gave rise to missionary opposition to Chinese foot binding. This is a list of notable Protestant missionaries in China by agency. Following the appeal of Karl Gützlaff, who started work in China in 1831, German, Scandinavian, and American Lutheran mission societies followed with Lutheran missions to China. We will be making this large list sorted by alphabetic pages due to the size. Protestant missionary activity exploded during the next few decades. Eleven other provinces with a population estimated at 197 million, had no missionaries. [19] Moreover, critics charged that many of the Chinese were "Rice Christians", accepting Christianity only for the material benefits of becoming a Christian. Portuguese merchants and Catholic missionaries, who arrived in China during the late sixteenth century, were the first important cultural meetings between China and Europe. One hundred and eighty-nine Protestant missionaries, including 53 children, (and many Roman Catholic priests and nuns) were killed by Boxers and Chinese soldiers in northern China. Lists all Church of Scotland, Presbyterian Church of England and Presbyterian Church in Ireland missionaries from 1867-1950. [23], An anti-Christian mobs was broke out among the Muslims in Kashgar directed against the Swedish missionaries in 1923. The Good Earth (1931) was her best-selling novel, and a popular movie. The schools offered basic education to poor Chinese, both boys and girls. The 1922 study The Christian Occupation of China presented view of the liberal wing of the missionary establishment that control should be turned over to Chinese, but the unfortunate title made matters worse. Early missionaries, such as Bridgman, criticized the opium trade—but missionaries were equivocal. missionaries in China than Missionaries in China by Alexander Michie missionaries to China in of Jesus in China is the Its border with China is The RC Missionaries: Special Order Description. Hackett (1851–1916) of Indiana, USA. Missionaries eventually formed, in 1896, an Anti-Opium League that proved effective in promoting its position in Britain and in China. [56] Another skeptical note was sounded by the massive study commissioned by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. entitled "Rethinking Missions" which cast doubt on a wide range of missionary activities. The widespread view in Europe and America in the late 19th century was that "Civilization cannot exist apart from Christianity."[35]. The remaining needed funds were provided by the Southern Methodist Church and the Northern Baptist Church in the USA. The entire staff and student body of the Chefoo School for missionary children, grades one to twelve, numbering 239 children and adults, were among those interned at Weihsien. … In 1912, Episcopal Church missionary activities in China were reorganized with Anglican mission initiatives of the Church of England and other Anglican provinces under the banner of the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Christian missionaries such as British missionary George W. Hunter, Johannes Avetaranian, and Swedish missionaries like Magnus Bäcklund, Nils Fredrik Höijer, Father Hendricks, Josef Mässrur, Anna Mässrur, Albert Andersson, Gustaf Ahlbert, Stina Mårtensson, John Törnquist, Gösta Raquette, Oskar Hermannson and the Uyghur converted Christian Nur Luke studied the Uyghur language and wrote works on it. The facilities included a chemistry laboratory, an X-ray facility and a Nursing School. [41], In England, the home director of the China Inland Mission, Benjamin Broomhall, was an active opponent of the opium trade; he wrote two books to promote banning opium smoking: Truth about Opium Smoking and The Chinese Opium Smoker. The first was during the Tang dynasty in AD 635, when missionaries from the Church of the East (the Persian branch, cut off from the main church due to political tension between the Roman and Persian empires) came to China via the overland route. I can’t tell you what anything in China is really like—that is, unless we’re comfortable with saying it’s like a bunch of contradictory things all at the same time. The mainline Protestant denomination missionary work declined rapidly. Beginning with the arrival of Robert Morrison in 1807 and ending in 1953 with the departure of Arthur Matthews and Dr. Rupert Clark of the China Inland Mission, thousands of foreign Protestant missionaries and their families, lived and worked in China to spread Christianity, establish schools, and work as medical missionaries. [54], The May Fourth Movement criticized all traditional beliefs and religions. His Chinese experience made a deep impression, and his publications always gave large scale favorable attention to China. Margaret E.Barber: the spiritual counselor of Watchman Nee. [38] The China Centenary Missionary Conference in 1907 affirmed that education and health were of equal importance with evangelism although traditionalists complained that "education and health are no substitute for preaching. Journal of Modern Chinese History 2.2 (2008): 197-219. Yanli Gao, "Judd's China: a missionary congressman and US–China policy." [60] The Nobel Prize committee for literature hailed her, "for the notable works which pave the way to a human sympathy passing over widely separated racial boundaries and for the studies of human ideals which are a great and living art of portraiture. From 50 missionaries in China in 1860, the number grew to 2,500 (counting wives and children) in 1900. He was forced to take work with the EIC in order to fund these activities and remain at Guangzhou. He wanted to demonstrate "the meekness and gentleness of Christ" to the Chinese. In 1872 in Beijing, American Methodist Mary Porter, who became the wife of Boxer Rebellion hero Frank Gamewell, banned girls with bound feet in her school and in 1874 an anti-footbinding organization was founded in Xiamen. [11] Traditional Chinese teachers viewed the mission schools with suspicion and it was often difficult for the Christian schools to attract pupils. Commentary, Editorial, The Episcopal Church. ", Yanli Gao and Robert Osburn Jr. "Walter Judd and the Sino-Japanese War: Christian Missionary cum Foreign Policy Activist.". Prueba Prime Hola, Identifícate Cuenta y listas Identifícate Cuenta y listas Pedidos Suscríbete a Prime Cesta. Western Missionaries in China. Opium was the Great Britain's most profitable export to China during the 19th century. Saltar al contenido principal. According to biographer Yanli Gao: Expanding missionary influence (1842–1900), Physical education, sport, and "muscular Christianity", Setbacks, questioning, and war (1919–1945), Lutz, Jessie G. "Attrition Among Protestant Missionaries in China, 1807–1890", Lazich, Michael C. "American Missionaries and the Opium Trade in Nineteenth Century China", Drucker, Alison R. "The Influence of Western Women on the Anti-Footbinding Movement". In 1900 there were an estimated 100,000 Protestants in China. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Protestant missionaries affiliated with other agencies, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "List of Protestant missionaries in China", Annie (née Bell, formerly Bohannon) Fishe, Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, American Southern Methodist Episcopal Mission, Netherlands Chinese Evangelization Society, Woman's Union Missionary Society of America, Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge Among the Chinese, List of Protestant missionary societies in China (1807–1953), List of Roman Catholic missionaries in China, "Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI) - nidirect", Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity, "Making Disciples: Using Everything I Have - The Navigators", Missionaries in Amoy (primarily with the RCA), List of articles regarding Fuzhou's Christian history, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Protestant_missionaries_in_China&oldid=991970287, Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from May 2017, Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from May 2017, Articles that may contain original research from May 2017, All articles that may contain original research, Articles needing additional references from May 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Hunan province, later Taiwan (Finnish Evangelical Lutheran), Hugh Cowie - Amoy District of china - his two daughters Annie S M Clowie and Helena Margaret Cowie were born there, Born in Tianjin; arrived as missionary in 1925, Chungking (Chongqing) and Luchow (Luzhow), American Southern Presbyterian Mission (Jiangsu), Christian & Missionary Alliance (Gansu, Tibet), Christian & Missionary Alliance (Guangxi), Norwegian-American Lutheran Mission Society, Fulton, Austin Through earthquake wind and fire; Church and mission in Manchuria. There were more than 1700 Presbyterian missionaries to China and Taiwan over the decades, including ministers, teachers and medical personnel. After the victory of the Chinese Communist armies in 1949 and suppression of religion, the members of all missionary societies departed or were expelled from China. By 1915, there were more than 60 students, mostly in residence. In such conditions, his proselytizing was limited to his employees, whom he compelled to attend Sunday services and daily meetings including prayer, Scriptural readings, and the singing of hymns. He died in Lao Hu Gou (He Bei province) on February 23, 1868, at the age of 44. Christian Missionaries in China. This organization was instrumental in gathering data from Western-trained medical doctors in China, most of whom were missionaries. Overall, in the 19th century, although missionaries arriving in China were usually young and healthy, about one-half of missionaries resigned or died after less than 10 years of service. "[61], No one had more influence on American political thinking about foreign policy than Henry R. Luce (1898-1967), founder and publisher of TIME, LIFE and FORTUNE magazines from the 1920s to his death. The David Gregg Hospital for Women and Children (also known as Yuji Hospital 柔濟醫院)[48][49] was affiliated with this college. Missionaries called to serve in mainland China mission False. by Bernadette Li. Over time, as it became clear that Christian schools were necessary to attract and educate potential Christians and leaders and change foreign cultures that were unreceptive to the Christian message as proclaimed by male missionary preachers. [12] Taylor and others aroused the West put more people and resources into the effort make China a Christian country. There are a variety of stories about young men receiving mission calls with mysterious phone numbers to call. Missionaries turned towards establishing hospitals and schools as more effective in attracting Chinese to Christianity than proselytizing. In 1888 Broomhall formed and became secretary of the "Christian Union for the Severance of the British Empire with the Opium Traffic" and editor of its periodical, National Righteousness. (2.5 linear ft.) Iverson, Lalla, M.D. How did it start? Beginning with the … Dr. Fred P. Manget (1880–1979) went from Georgia, USA, to Shanghai as a medical missionary in 1909. 12-13. Prueba Prime Hola, Identifícate Cuenta y listas Identifícate Cuenta y listas Devoluciones y Pedidos Suscríbete a Prime Cesta. The Nestorian Stele is a Tang Chinese stele erected in AD 781 that documents 150 years of history of early Christianity in China. John A. The government also has begun to used artificial intelligence, big data and a 'social credit system' to persecute the church in China. Many Chinese associated the missionaries with Western imperialism and resented them, especially the educated classes who feared changes that might threaten their position. For decades, Christian missionaries travelled to China with the hopes of establishing medically advanced facilities to help those in need. (2.5 linear ft.) Iverson, Lalla, M.D. Missionaries Arthur Matthews (an American) and Dr. Rupert Clark (British) were placed under house arrest but were finally allowed to leave in 1953. As the foreign and missionary presence in China grew, so also did Chinese resentment of foreigners. Study Christianity’s entire history in China—from St. Thomas the Apostle to the Qing Dynasty and the Boxer Rebellion. 10/18/2020 China (International Christian Concern) – The Shanxi government destroyed more than 20 Swedish missionaries’ gravestones in their designated cemetery on September 12.An adjoining house for visitors was demolished as well. 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