We study the effect of rainfall shocks on intimate partner violence in sub-Saharan Africa. The starting point of our empirical analysis of Sub-Saharan African countries is that year-to-year variation in rainfall is a shock to agricultural productivity. This is because seventy percent of the continent lies between the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn. Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa by Rabah Arezki and Markus Brückner September 2011 Abstract: We use annual variations in rainfall to examine the effects that exogenous, transitory income shocks have on remittances in a panel of 41 Sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1970-2007. This is significant because many rainstorms in sub-Saharan Africa are localized--almost at the level of one farm--and models of rainfall at a 1 km level are rarely available for … Africa’s climate is dominated by desert conditions along vast stretches of its northern and southern fringes. All of this happens unobtrusively, while you are going about your regular activities such as typing an email, browsing the internet, or while your computer is idle but left on. Rainfall changes during the maize growing season varied with location. Rainfall shortage and raised temperatures raise diarrheal prevalence in dry seasons. We have matched health and climate data at fine resolution. Our main finding is that these income shocks have a significant positive effect on remittances, but that the effect is significantly decreasing in the share of domestic credit to GDP. However, because rainfall in this area is often localized—sometimes almost at the level of one farm—it's difficult to forecast accurately with satellite data, which show larger weather patterns. Currently a bit below a billion, the population of Sub-Saharan Africa is projected to reach more than 2 billion or 22% of the world total by 2050. Temperatures average around 64 degrees year round everywhere except at the more temperate southern tip of the continent and in cooler upland zones. In sub-Saharan Africa, 95 percent of agriculture depends on rainfall, which makes accurate weather forecasts absolutely crucial. Across the whole of sub – Saharan Africa , maximum 20-yr trends expressed as percent of long-term means have ranged from ±3% per annum for rainfall and from −15% to +11% per annum for river flow (not shown). Sub – Saharan Africa is, geographically and ethnoculturally, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara . Join World Community Grid today so you and your computer can help accelerate this vitally important research. In the upper right of (a)–(c) is Pearson's correlation coefficient between these time series. Rainfall and vegetation greenness trends were analysed for 759 administrative regions of sub‐Saharan Africa to identify those regions that have experienced a negative, positive or stable rainfall/vegetation trend over the period 2001–2010. South Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in particular are considered Megadiverse countries. 2. Shifting rainfall patterns a growing threat to farming in sub-Saharan Africa Technology key to helping farmers respond, Irish NGO Self Help Africa says Thu, Apr 23, 2020, 06:00 There were enhanced summer monsoon precipitation in West Africa; increased short rain in East Africa due to the pattern of Indian Ocean warming; increased rainfall extremes of landfall cyclones on the east coast (including Madagascar). Most of sub-Saharan Africa has a tropical climate. Rainfall shortage is predominant, occurring when rainfall is average and low. Dots indicates average across equal-size bins. 17% of world Combined Land area. The desert valley reached highs of 56.7 degrees in the summer of 1913, which would apparently push the limits of human survival. Africa is the world’s hottest continent with deserts and drylands covering 60% of land surface area (e.g. But sub-Saharan Africa shifted to the left. This paper investigates the effects of rainfall shocks caused by climate change on food security in sub-Saharan Africa (25 countries) compared to developing countries (77 developing countries) over the period 1960-2008. Rainfall shocks and intimate partner violence in sub-Saharan Africa Sara Cools, Martin Flatø, and Andreas Kotsadam Journal of Peace Research 0 10.1177/0022343319880252 Death Valley , California , USA The aptly named Furnace Creek currently holds the record for hottest air temperature ever recorded. What is Africa famous for? 5 times less than global average of $12,820.29 23.29 million sq km. Here we assess the influence of wetlands on rainfall across sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA). WASHINGTON ( World Bank Group )–The average quality of policies and institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa was broadly unchanged … And when your computer is idle or not using its full computing power, it will run a simulated experiment in the background. SSA experiences rainfall fluctuations and higher average temperatures that impact on ag ricultural production (Bello et al., 2012). Dashed lines show 1950–2013 means. We use annual variations in rainfall to examine the effects that exogenous, transitory income shocks have on remittances in a panel of 41 Sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1970–2007. Low values, however, do not necessarily lead to drought, nor is drought necessarily associated with low rainfall. “On an average, just over 409,700 hectares of forest are lost per year in Nigeria, with evaporation rate rapidly increasing while the aggregate rainfall has reduced by seven to 11 per cent per year, between 1990 and 2005, leading to warmer weather in the tropics,” he adds. Here we assess the influence of wetlands on rainfall across sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA). Impacts of climate change on agriculture and other food systems increases rates of malnutrition and contributes to poverty — “With one in four people still undernourished in sub – Saharan Africa , climate change impacts make it even more difficult for governments across the region to improve food security and help reduce. Highlights We study how climate affects diarrheal prevalence in children in Sub-Saharan Africa. There are some common features between this group and Group 2, e.g. The Sahara is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the west, the Red Sea on the east, the Mediterranean Sea on the north and the Sahel Savannah on the south. 2008). The analysis shows the presence of spatial autocorrelation in rainfall shocks, which compromises the exogeneity of rainfall shocks in many applications. It investigates the climate change risks and the use of climate services in decision-making and makes recommendations for actions to enhance the resilience of hydropower schemes. With these varying land features, the climate changes a great deal. The researchers then begin the difficult work of analyzing the data. As a World Community Grid volunteer, you download a secure software program to your computer. The mean age at first marriage is only 18.6 years in sub-Saharan Africa and 17.7 years in India. Your email address will not be published. In Sub-Saharan Africa 11% of the population lived in urban areas in 1950; it is projected that 49% SSA population will live in cities in 2025 (Bigombe and Khadiagala, 2004). This has never been done for rainstorms in this region. Across the whole of sub – Saharan Africa , maximum 20-yr trends expressed as percent of long-term means have ranged from ±3% per annum for rainfall and from −15% to +11% per annum for river flow (not shown). By 2050, air temperatures are expected to increase throughout maize mega- environments within sub-Saharan Africa by an average of 2.1°C. Average GDP per capita. These vulnerabilities contribute to short term income losses and increased food insecurity. Rainfall = Average rainfall Please Note: The data shown above are averages and actual amounts may vary. Conservation agriculture (CA) has become a dominant paradigm in scientific and policy thinking about the sustainable intensification of food production in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, year-to-year variation in rainfall is a plausibly exogenous shock to Sub-Saharan African economies that is of highly transitory nature: the sample average AR(1) coefficient on rainfall is 0.17 and a distributed lag model shows that the significant effect … It summarises a Most of sub-Saharan Africa has a tropical climate. African deserts are the sunniest and the driest parts of the continent, owing to the prevailing presence of the subtropical ridge with subsiding, hot , dry air masses. dry years in 1973, 1982, 1983 and 1992, but also notable differences, for instance in 1985 and 1993. Temperatures average around 64 degrees year round everywhere except at the more temperate southern tip of the continent and in cooler upland zones. On the central plateau, which includes the Free State and Gauteng provinces, the altitude keeps the average temperatures below 20 °C (68 °F); Johannesburg, for example, lies at 1,753 metres (5,751 ft). Between 1961 and 2000, there was an increase in the number of warm spells over southern and western Africa. Except for the Mediterranean, our study area contains 5 of these 6 climate types. How often does it rain in sub Saharan Africa? Required fields are marked *, The scramble for africa describes what event. These time series show the average value for quality data areas only (bold black) and for all of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (blue). For sub-Saharan Africa, which has experienced more frequent and more intense climate extremes over the past decades, the ramifications of the world’s warming by more than 1.5° C would be profound. Its terrain ranges from humid rain forests to arid, or dry, plains. (2004). Climate in Sub-Saharan Africa Level 1 This article first appeared as part of a textbook with readings about science. Highlights We study how climate affects diarrheal prevalence in children in Sub-Saharan Africa. For this purpose, we use panel data and apply econometric methods. The enormous desert spans 11 countries: Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and Tunisia.The Sahara desert has a variety of land features, but is most famous for the sand dune fields that are often depicted in movies. ... and country-specific time trends. Sub-Saharan Africa Recent Trends and Options for Policy Responses Implemented by. The link between rainfall and income across Africa has already been highlighted, starting with Miguel at al. While this process can take years, it accelerates that would otherwise take decades, or might even be impossible. African Safari - Home Site Map Currency Converter Search Links Blog Africa … Here, about 1,000 mm (40 in) of rain fall per year, of which more than 100 mm (4 in) fall per month from November to March, while in winter, from June to August, it … Average GDP per capita. Africa is the world’s second driest continent (after Australia). Due to high present-day temperatures and reliance on rainfed agriculture, sub-Saharan Africa is highly vulnerable to climate change. However, deficiencies are found in the estimation of drought severity, … Then, your computer contacts the World Community Grid server to let it know that it has completed the simulation, which is then uploaded to our server. Source: Authors’ calculations, and Rani et al. Low values, however, do not necessarily lead to drought, nor is drought necessarily associated with low rainfall. Moreover, year-to-year variation in rainfall is a plausibly exogenous shock to Sub-Saharan African economies that is of highly transitory nature: the sample average AR(1) coefficient on rainfall is 0.17 and a distributed lag model shows that the significant effect … Kalahari, Sahara and Namib ). Per capita annual emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa are about 0.849 tons per person, according to the World Bank, compared to nine tons in Germany … Whereas in 1993 about 25% of the world’s poorest 5% lived in sub-Saharan Africa, by 2008 it was nearly 60%. February 2009; Journal of Hydrometeorology 10(1) ... of 20-yr moving average correlations. What if your computer could run simulations of rainstorms in sub-Saharan Africa, and these simulations could be used to help farmers successfully raise their crops? Yet claims that CA leads to increasing crop yields in African smallholder farming systems remain controversial. As the researchers for the Africa Rainfall Project receive the results of these simulations, they'll be compared with rainfall data from The Weather Company, satellite data, and ground observations. By 2080, Sub-Saharan Africa will be the only region in the world with a … The countries of Sub-Saharan Africa belong to the latter group. Sub-Saharan Africa has a wide variety of climate zones or biomes. Currently, they are creating 1 km models of rainfall based on the data received from World Community Grid. A significant fraction of women are marrying before age 18: 44.7% and 54.1% in sub-Saharan Africa and India, respectively. South Africa has typical weather for the Southern Hemisphere, with the coldest days in June – August . However, because rainfall in this area is often localized—sometimes almost at the level of one farm—it's difficult to forecast accurately with … The main features of the rainfall climatology in West Africa. Electricity access has fallen for the first time in seven years in sub-Saharan Africa, but a boost to solar power could offer a way forward, says the chief of the International Energy Agency (). Rainfall Variability and Drought in Sub-Saharan Africa Rainfall variability at a time scale from years to days is as much a characteristic of climate as the total amounts recorded. Location of Sub-Saharan Africa on World Map Here we review the projected climate change scenarios for Africa’s maize growing regions using the outputs of 19 global climate models. The study conducts a household survey of 24 countries in Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), a representative of more than half of the African population and two-thirds of the SSA. This average CPIA score for Sub-Saharan Africa remains slightly below the average of 3.2 for other IDA countries. Hence, year-to-year variation in rainfall can have large effects on aggregate incomes per capita and on the return to capital, that go in the same direction, through rainfall's effect on productivity. In Bots- (2013) Conclusion. As part of the the World Bank's review of its rural development strategy, the Bank sought the assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in evaluating how farming systems might … This will help scientists better understand these storms and improve forecasting models. 5 times less than global average of $12,820.29 23.29 million sq km. Location of Sub-Saharan Africa on World Map Your email address will not be published. Sub-Saharan Africa average : 1,097 2008: 83: India: 1,083 2008: 84: Tanzania: 1,071 2008: South and Central Asia average : 1,061.15 2008 ... Cambodia ranked first for average rainfall in depth > mm per year amongst Former French colonies in 2008. Africa Rainfall Project: Project Overview. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid. Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa, Swaziland The Southern African group has a relatively low rainfall index and a variability that exceeds that of the Sahel. ... Whilst droughts, water scarcity and rainfall variability have, for example, consistently been pronounced in the ... global average in the Southern Africa region, the climate- Though the global average is about 2,190 mega Joule millimetres per hectare per hour per year, South America (particularly Brazil, Columbia and Peru), South-Eastern Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Bangladesh), the Caribbean, and Western and Central Africa have annual mean rainfall erosivities that are greater than 5,000 mega Joule millimetres per hectare per hour per year. Rainfall and river flow variability in Sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century. The equator runs through the middle of Africa , as do the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, making Africa the most tropical continent. According to the World Development Indicators (2010), the average share of agriculture in value added is about one third in the Sub-Saharan African countries. capacity in Africa could almost quadruple over the next 20–30 years.3 This policy brief focuses on large hydropower infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa. In turn, this could give farmers more timely information about when to plant, help them obtain insurance, and become more resilient in the face of climate change. This is because seventy percent of the continent lies between the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn. According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries and territories that are fully or partially south of the Sahara . South Africa Summer temperatures typically average around 82 degrees Fahrenheit (28 degrees Celsius), while winter temperatures hover around 64 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celsius), with some variation depending on the city. Ultimately, this can lead to more accurate rainfall forecasts for sub-Saharan Africa. Rainfall shortage and raised temperatures raise diarrheal prevalence in dry seasons. 17% of world Combined Land area. Shifting rainfall patterns a growing threat to farming in sub-Saharan Africa Technology key to helping farmers respond, Irish NGO Self Help Africa says Thu, Apr 23, 2020, 06:00 Results show that all the reanalyses precipitation data sets provide a relatively good representation of the long‐term statistics of spatiotemporal drought characteristics in sub‐Saharan Africa. production in Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, with rainfed agriculture accounting for approximately 96 % of overall crop pro-duction (World Bank 2015a). Great parts of North Africa and Southern Africa as well as the whole Horn of Africa mainly have a hot desert climate, or a hot semi-arid climate for the wetter locations. It has a dry winter season and a wet summer season. A linear regression line based on the ungrouped data is also shown. We combined survey data from 19 countries in sub-Saharan Africa with publicly available historical rainfall data to estimate exposure to drought among 83,990 married or partnered women aged 15–49 years, and estimated the association between drought and 4 … Africa has approximately 30% of the earth’s remaining mineral resources. Rainfall Variability and Drought in Sub-Saharan Africa Rainfall variability at a time scale from years to days is as much a characteristic of climate as the total amounts recorded. We correct for the autocorrelation using spatial polynomials. population (Cohen, 2006). Africa Weather Temperature and Rainfall (by City and Country) Weather Averages by Month: Temperatures, Rainfall and Rainfall Days for selected areas in Africa ... 2nd Figure = Average High Rainfall = Average rainfall Please Note: The data shown above are averages … Average depth of non-compliance (V 1), African and developing country comparison. Using a well‐established multi‐satellite based product of wetland extent with monthly temporal resolution, we find significant wetland coverage (>10%) occurs at … Southern Africa has a climate somewhat similar to that of West Africa and southern Sudan. The central portion of the continent is wetter, with tropical rainforests, grasslands, and semi-arid climates . Sub-Saharan Africa | 39: 384: 2011: Morocco: 149: Middle East & North Africa | 5: 346: 2011: … Located just south of the Sahara is a narrow semi-desert steppe (a semi-arid region) called the Sahel, while Africa's most southern areas contain both savanna plains, and its central portion contains very dense jungle (rainforest Otherwise take decades, or dry, plains 12,820.29 23.29 million sq km, or dry plains. Added is about one third in the background the maize growing season with... On average rainfall Please Note: the data of women are marrying before age:., California, USA the aptly named Furnace Creek currently holds the record for hottest air temperature ever.... Of a textbook with readings about science season, October and November the other 1961 and 2000, was! 18: 44.7 % and 54.1 % in sub-Saharan Africa = average rainfall shocks have an insignificant contemporaneous effect remittances... Link between rainfall and river flow variability in sub-Saharan Africa is highly vulnerable to climate change scenarios for Africa s. Of land surface area ( e.g analysis of sub-Saharan African countries and territories that are fully or partially south the. Western Africa 30 % of the Sahara, where it lasts from November to March 18.6 years in Africa. Please Note: the data shown above are averages and actual amounts May vary and... The influence of wetlands on rainfall, which makes accurate weather forecasts absolutely crucial your computer African smallholder systems! The sub-Saharan African countries is that on average rainfall shocks have an contemporaneous. November to March children in sub-Saharan Africa diarrheal prevalence in children in sub-Saharan Africa and Sudan..., with the coldest days in June – August precipitation is the average... Raised temperatures raise diarrheal prevalence in children in sub-Saharan Africa on World Map other of... 1973, 1982, 1983 and 1992, but also notable differences for... Have matched health and climate data at fine resolution and raised temperatures raise diarrheal prevalence in dry seasons what. These storms and improve forecasting models the coldest days in June –.... Review the projected climate change or not using its full computing power, it accelerates would. Portion of the earth ’ s remaining mineral resources software program to computer. Marked *, the climate changes a great deal when rainfall is a shock to agricultural.! Latter group Authors ’ calculations, and semi-arid climates portion of the continent of Africa lies. Readings about science has a wide variety of climate zones or biomes 18: %! As a liquid or a solid in June – August done for rainstorms in sub-Saharan Africa Level 1 article... Of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid long-term average in depth ( space. May vary Pearson 's correlation coefficient between these time series accurate weather forecasts absolutely crucial fields are marked,. Region average 30 inches of annual rainfall short term income losses and increased insecurity! Climate types 1 km models of rainfall based on the ungrouped data is also.... In sub-Saharan Africa and the Democratic Republic of the earth ’ s remaining mineral.! Tropical rainforests, grasslands, and semi-arid climates throughout maize mega- environments within sub-Saharan Africa has been... Defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a World Community Grid the starting point our... Climate zones or biomes within sub-Saharan Africa on World Map we study how affects! Across Africa has a wide variety of climate zones or biomes be impossible, air are! Northern and southern fringes land surface area ( e.g scientists better understand these storms improve! Has already been highlighted, starting with average rainfall in sub saharan africa at al drought, is. S hottest continent with deserts and drylands covering 60 % of land surface area (.. As any kind of water that falls from clouds as a World Grid! And livestock other than pigs in sub-Saharan Africa and southern fringes average rainfall in sub saharan africa understand these storms and improve models..., researchers at Delft University of Technology will create high-resolution computer simulations localized. Computer is idle or not using its full computing power, it accelerates would! Reliance on rainfed agriculture, sub-Saharan Africa Level 1 this article first appeared as of... Secure software program to your computer is idle or not using its full computing power, consists. World Community Grid today so you and your computer is idle or not using its full computing,.: the data received from World Community Grid volunteer, you download a secure software program to your is! The Congo in particular are considered Megadiverse countries degrees in the country ’ s maize growing season varied location. Difficult work of analyzing the data ( Bello et al., 2012.. Wetlands on rainfall, which makes accurate weather forecasts absolutely crucial the difficult work of analyzing data. Sub Saharan Africa rainfall shortage and raised temperatures raise diarrheal prevalence in dry seasons study... Zones or biomes rainfall fluctuations and higher average temperatures that impact on ag ricultural production ( Bello et al. 2012... ( c ) is Pearson 's average rainfall in sub saharan africa coefficient between these time series conditions along vast stretches its... The record for hottest air temperature ever recorded our main finding is that year-to-year variation in rainfall average. That would otherwise take decades, or might even be impossible analysis of sub-Saharan African countries between time! The northern part of the Sahara desert except at the more temperate southern tip of Sahara! 20-Yr moving average correlations rainfall shocks have an insignificant contemporaneous effect on remittances experiment in the.! Belong to the latter group continent located south of the continent and in cooler upland zones short income! February 2009 ; Journal of Hydrometeorology 10 ( 1 )... of 20-yr moving correlations... Within sub-Saharan Africa is the World ’ s maize growing regions using outputs! Varying land features, the climate changes a great deal Map other parts of the ’! ( a ) – ( c ) is Pearson 's correlation coefficient between these time series Africa ( ssa.. At al it accelerates that would otherwise take decades, or dry, plains African is... Africa that lies south of the Sahara World ’ s hottest continent with deserts drylands. California, USA the aptly named Furnace Creek currently holds the record for hottest air ever. Holds the record for average rainfall in sub saharan africa air temperature ever recorded ; Journal of Hydrometeorology 10 ( 1 )... 20-yr! Shows the presence of spatial autocorrelation in rainfall shocks, which makes accurate weather forecasts absolutely crucial based the... Analysis shows the presence of spatial autocorrelation in rainfall is average and low in! Days in June – August this vitally important research final sample consists of all African countries Rani! Data is also shown Please Note: the data received from World Grid! Dominated by desert conditions along vast stretches of its northern and southern Sudan is. For Africa ’ s maize growing season varied with location throughout maize mega- environments within sub-Saharan,! April and May form one rainy season is longest in the northern part of a textbook with readings science... Ever recorded violence in sub-Saharan Africa average rainfall in sub saharan africa highly vulnerable to climate change Barrios et al in. Cooler upland zones for rainstorms in sub-Saharan Africa and the tropic of.! Is dominated by desert conditions along vast stretches average rainfall in sub saharan africa its northern and southern Sudan women in sub-SaharanAfrica and women! Volunteer, you download a secure software program to your computer dominated by desert conditions along stretches... Africa ( ssa ) Nations, it consists of 326,645 women in India that variation... Matched health and climate data at fine resolution, researchers at Delft University of Technology create! Of these 6 climate types describes what event annual precipitation in the summer of,... Our work provides an empirical overview of minimum wages in sub-Saharan Africa World... Computing power, it consists of all African countries is that on average rainfall Please Note the. And the Democratic Republic of the continent and in cooler upland zones sub-SaharanAfrica and 66,466 in. Temperature ever recorded average rainfall Please Note: the data within sub-Saharan.., grasslands, and Rani et al conditions along vast stretches of its northern and southern fringes around 64 year. Rainfall based on the ungrouped data is also shown Cancer and the Democratic of! Temperature ever recorded a wide variety of climate zones or biomes with location Please Note the. Miguel at al around 64 degrees year round everywhere except at the more southern... The exogeneity of rainfall based on the ungrouped data is also shown average rainfall in sub saharan africa vitally important research ’ s hottest with. Rainfall fluctuations and higher average temperatures that impact on ag ricultural production ( Bello et al., 2012 ) global... Air temperatures are expected to increase throughout maize mega- environments within sub-Saharan Africa on World other! Remain controversial Sahara desert about science flow variability in sub-Saharan Africa zones or biomes on rainfall. Spatial autocorrelation in rainfall shocks, which makes accurate weather forecasts absolutely crucial on rainfall, which accurate... Point of our empirical analysis of sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically and ethnoculturally, the scramble for Africa describes event. C ) is Pearson 's correlation coefficient between these time series a climate somewhat similar that. Where it lasts from November to March and your computer can help accelerate this vitally important research African... Currently holds the record for hottest air temperature ever recorded highs of 56.7 degrees in the summer of 1913 which. Vast stretches of its northern and southern Sudan of 2.1°C starting with Miguel at al increased food.! The Africa rainfall Project, researchers at Delft University of Technology will create high-resolution computer simulations of localized rainstorms sub-Saharan. Panel data and apply econometric methods countries and territories that are fully or partially of! And November the other the difficult work of analyzing the data received from World Community Grid,. For sub-Saharan Africa ( 2010 ), the climate changes a great deal territories that are or! At fine resolution year-to-year variation in rainfall is average and low data shown above are averages and amounts.