Push c. Drag d. This depends upon the welding position. If a large drag angle is utilized, air may be drawn into the shielding gas and contaminate the weld. 45° work angle with a 5° to 10° drag travel angle. A standard traveling angle should be between 5 – 15 degrees. In the diagram on the right, the travel angle shows a 5-10 degree tilt along the joint. Rod angle, arc length, travel speed and welding motion are illustrated with photos and videos, and a video shows the effect of varying the arc length. As a rule of thumb, in stick welding arc length should match the diameter of the electrode metal. Arc welding faults. Sometimes even 90 degrees straight in. It is recommended that the welding torch be held essentially perpendicular to the work-piece, with the work angle at 90° from the horizontal and only a slight travel angle of 0° to 5°. When welding on 10- to 18-gauge sheet steel, the fastest travel speeds are obtained with the work positioned at 45 to 75 degrees downhill. This gives the welder a better view of what's going on in the puddle. Quenching plates after welding (to cool them down) is a practice that's generally frowned upon after the first semester of welding school. The travel angle is the angle between a line perpendicular to the weld axis and the electrode. What is the travel angle? But if it crosses 20 degrees, it may result in weak penetration and instability of the arc. This method reduces the possibilities of crater cracks. As you can see in the first diagram, the angle of the torch to the work piece (left) is 90 degrees, allowing maximum heat and current focused down into the open groove butt joint. As for the face of the weld, it should lie in an approximately vertical plane. google_ad_height = 600; Technically it is the angle your electrode takes (or the centerline of your torch/gun) in reference to the line which is at a right angle to the welds axis and the weld axis plane. Stick and wire welding require different angles. The image below shows you the travel angle. Notice that when the voltage is too high, the bead is wide and flat. The angle is measured in the plane containing the weld axis and the electrode axis. Pull b. A typical pipe butt weld set-up would be 60° included angle, 1mm to 2mm root gap and a zero to 1.5mm thick root face. Travel angles beyond 20 to 25 degrees can lead to more spatter, less penetration and general arc instability. Work angle is “the relationship between the axis of the electrode to the welders work piece.” Travel angle refers to employing either a push angle (pointing in the direction of travel) or a drag angle, when the electrode is pointed opposite of travel. The second angle used in welding is the travel angle. google_ad_width = 120; The travel angle is also known as the drag or push angle. M is for manipulation of electrode. The tip should form an angle of approximately 45 degrees with the plate surface. A metallurgy class teaches welders the many forms of heat treatment and their advantages - like hardening, tempering and annealing. In stick welding, the welder sets the voltage directly but not the current, so the machines are referred to as Constant Current (CC). When learning any new process you'll likely start off doing things wrong. When you drag your torch or electrode, the tilt is directed towards the puddle, which helps with penetration and achieving a thick bead. When you are welding a joint that has the same thickness then your work angle will take place in the center of the joint. This angle can also be used to partially define the position of guns, torches, rods, and beams. The electrode angle consists of two positions: work angle and travel angle. MIG or flux-cored welding), the wire electrode is held farther away from the joint than in stick welding. Electrode angle is pretty forgiving as long as the arc length is tight. 45 degree work, 30 degree travel, lay root pass using slight whipping motion, use weave motion on … Work angle is the angle from the horizontal measured at right angles to the direction of welding (fig, 7-15). The angle relative to the gun if it were held in a perpendicular position to the surface of the weld. There are plenty of other size factors to consider, but metal thickness usually comes first. See Weld Defects for more on this subject. For a 2F horizontal Tee, I used a slight drag pull angle of around 5-10 degrees. In fact, you can make things worse if you don't take the time to do your fit-up correctly. The most common travel angle is called a drag angle in which the electrode points in a direction opposite that of the arc travel. While some stick electrodes are designed to penetrate through rust and millscale, those impurities can still cause problems. You should also tack your plates and use clamps as needed to prevent the joint from closing up in advance of the weld, or other distortion caused by heat. What gun travel angle is recommended for GMAW-P aluminum? Similar to MAG welding torch position and angles can be applied (however rutile flux cored will require different techniques). The travel angle is that angle which is defined when the gun is in a perpendicular position within the joint plane. Normally it should be around 5 to 15 degrees. Where access to the reverse side of the joint is available, the condition of the penetration bead is less important as the root bead can be ground to sound metal and a sealing pass deposited. Some welds are covered by specific codes that prohibit peening so you should check the weld specification before peening. for downhill mig, a 90 degree works but a pull torch angle of up to 20 deg seems to work better at keeping the puddle pushed back from the arc. Variations in the ESO or CTWD affect the amount of the current going into the joint, regardless of the wirespeed setting on the machine. This is the relationship between the torch and line of travel. In MIG/flux cored, the machines provides Constant Voltage (CV), so the welder usually only sets the current. Work angle is especially important in multiple-pass fillet welding. Work angle is especially important in multiple-pass fillet welding. The second angle used in welding is the travel angle. If you have any website suggestions or concerns, email welder [at] thecityedition [dot] com. Travel angle is the angle in the direction of welding and may vary from 5 to 30 degrees, depending on the welder's choice and conditions (fig. A travel angle of 0° to 10° (i.e., the electrode perpendicular or mostly perpendicular to the plate) will result in more weld penetration. A grinder also removes cracks on the surface. At slower travel speeds, the arc is directly above the center of the molten weld pool. Normal welding conditions in all positions call for a travel angle of 5 to 15 degrees. Needless to say, the angle of your beveled sides should be appropriate for the thickness of the metal and the welding process being used. A is for Angle of Electrode. This process aids in relieving built-up stresses and preventing surface cracking in the joint area; however, peening should be done with care because excess hammering can work harden and increase stresses in the weld. Speed - If you move too fast, the size of the weld will be small and achieve insufficient penetration. google_ad_client = "pub-0048113051831248"; In other words, if you're using a 1/8 inch rod, hold it 1/8 inch from the joint surface. 7-16). Reduce your travel speed so the weld metal completely fills the melted-out areas of the base metal. Direct current reverse polarity c. Direct current straight polarity d. Direct current electrode negative Two inert gases used in GMAW are . The pool of molten slag is wide, tall and bubbly, and shouldn't be mistaken for the weld pool! Travel Speed Faults. a. For stick welding, you have to drag the weld. Going beyond 25 degrees increases spatter decreases arc stability and leads to less penetration. Flat Position Narrow Bead Weld To increase the depth of fusion, either increase the angle between the tip and the plate surface, or decrease the welding speed. The travel angle is the angle of the wire as it travels along the weld path. When wire welding (MIG or flux-core), the ridge should be approximately ⅜ inch behind the wire electrode, Hoes … 2F is a fillet weld position, in which the welding is done on the upper side of the surfaces that is approximately horizontal that lies against a surface that is approximately vertical. /* 120x600, created 3/17/09 */ The types of welds, joints, and welding positions used in manual-shielded metal arc welding are very similar to those used in oxygas welding. The principle of metal cored wire welding is given in the picture below. This setting allows you to increase the current above the set output amperage if your arc starts to fizzle out. Although the photos above don't show it, too long of an arc can cause porosity (air bubbles) inside the weld, spatter on the base metal and undercutting at the toes of the joint. This is the relationship between the torch and line of travel. It is what most robots use to weld and it can produce a perfect weld in any position. Move the arc backward over the crater, and then move forward again and continue the weld. The torch is held at approximately a 45 degree angle from the vertical in the direction of welding, as shown in figure 11-4. In a wirefeed operation (i.e. The flame is pointed in the direction of welding and directed between the rod and the molten puddle. The angle at which you hold the electrode greatly affects the shape of the weld bead which is very important in fillet and deep groove welding. For welding vertical up, use a push or forehand technique and tilt the top of the electrode 0 to 15 degrees away from the direction of travel. Profiles and sections of welds with various faults are compared with good welds on this page. Producing a weld bead that's the right size, shape and depth involves many variables. Naturally, the techniques are somewhat different because of the equipment involved is different. Correcting the problem is relatively simple: reduce the welding current, decrease the welding arc voltage and adjust your MIG gun angle toward the joint. There shouldn't be any burrs, gaps or evenness. ------------------------------------------, Copyright © 2012-2015 TheCityEdition.com, Improving Your Stick Welding Technique MillerWelds.com, Open root v groove butt joint 3G vertical up video, Using CLAMS paramenters in Stick Welding This discontinuity weakens the toe of the weld, increasing the chances of cracking. The following chart shows how some CLAMS variables impact a weld bead: In the last two examples, "WFS" stands for wirefeed speed, which is how MIG and flux cored welding machines regulate current. The flame will be pointed in the welding direction. At the same time, the use of incorrect shielding gas, incorrect welding angle, wrong welding technique, and position are some of the primary causes of this welding flaw. Cleaning your weld edges in advance is also important. The mass of your work pieces also has an effect, with tinier work pieces heating up much faster than large, heavy pieces.. Low-carbon steel can be very forgiving when overheated, but other metals may lose their tensile strength or other qualities if you don't monitor the heat going in and out of the plates or pipe. so does a slight push angle of up to about 10 degrees. The major cause of undercuts in welding is when the operator (welder) uses a high welding current or welds with fast travel speed. for uphill mig, a 90 degree angle works good. Arc welding students remember most of them by reciting the acronym "CLAMS", since each letter stands for a welding parameter. That's because the quench has a sort of traumatizing effect to the metal and can make it brittle. Second pass 70° from the bottom plate and to posit the weld along the bottom toe of the root pass. a. Travel angle is defined as the angle relative to the gun in a perpendicular position. Your joints, beveled edges, grinded root faces and surfaces should fit together in a smooth and uniform manner before you start the weld. Angle the gun in the same direction as which you are pushing the weld. With stick welding, maintain a 20° to 30° lead angle in the dragging direction. What polarity does GMAW-P require? Travel angle is the angle in the direction of welding and may vary from 5 to 30 degrees, depending on the welder's choice and conditions (fig. (AWS Welding … Some stick machines also have a setting known as Dig. Normally, a small variance of the work angle will not affect the appearance or quality of a weld; however, when undercuts occur in the vertical section of a fillet weld, the angle of the arc should be lowered and the electrode directed more toward the vertical section. Held farther away, the electrode produces less heat and more spatter. When it becomes necessary to reestablish the arc (as in a long weld that requires the use of more than one electrode), the crater must first be cleaned before striking the arc. What working angles are required for each pass of a multi-passive fillet T-joint weld in horizontal position? google_ad_slot = "6853920422"; Beginner welders tend to move the rod too quickly, especially those who are transitioning to arc welding from another welding process. The welding process is described as MAG welding with metal cored electrode and is marked as 138 according the ISO standards. Travel Angle: the degree of the travel angle, whether a push or drag travel angle, affects how much of the arc force is directed down into the base plate. //-->, Welder Qualification Test Via Advice section, Open root v groove butt joint 3G vertical up. For wire welding, Hoes and Liesner recommend holding the gun at a 10 to 15-degree angle. Ideally, you'll hold your torch perpendicular, or 90 degrees, to the joint. 7-16). The angle of the tip and the travel speed while welding can alter the weld depth. In this position, the torch is usually held at a 45-degree angle. Angle - There are two torch angles to remember when welding. As the angle between the electrode and the plate determines the point of impingement and direction of the arc force, it has a critical effect on the weld bead profile and depth of penetration. The word 'travel' describes the movement of your torch. It comes down to machine settings, electrode angle and travel speed. Welders refer to charts from welding machine and electrode manufacturers, or a welding procedure specification (WPS) for their current settings, or try welding on sample plates of the same thickness to see what works best. So voltage determines the overall profile, or geometry, of the weld. You can increase the length of the arc to reduce heat to the puddle or to limit the deposition of weld metal. When you push, the tilt is away from the puddle, which limits penetration and heat going into the base metal. In addition to CLAMS, there are a few other variables to think about when planning a weld operation: Joint Design and Fit-Up: How you prepare your work plates (or stationary structure) for welding may contribute more to the outcome of the operation than anything else. What is the work angle and travel angle for Lap Joints in the Flat Position when welding a multi-pass? If the angle reaches 20-25 degrees it’s likely to reduce the penetration, increase the level of spatter and may even interfere with the stability of the arc. This condition leads to weld embrittlement and early failure. Heat Dispersal: Different metals disperse heat differently. Manipulation - This refers to the movement of the welder's hand as he or she guides the electrode along the joint. Travel speed is the rate at which the electrode travels along a weld seam. Traveling angle denotes to the perpendicular position of the gun whilst working angle is more important as it denotes to the position of the gun in relation to the welding joint angle. Achieving tie-in at the toes is paramount, but it's also important to control penetration and heat. As you learn more about the chemical and mechanical properties of different metals and alloys, you may decide to include a pre or post heat treatment or your work pieces as part of the welding operation. For this reason, students also learn the difference between Electrode StickOut (the wire length from the contact tip) and Contact-To-Work-Distance . Hold the electrode perpendicular to the joint, and then tilt the top in the direction of travel approximately 5 to 15 degrees. Also, when the rate of voltage is too low, the weld bead sits on top of the base metal rather than penetrating into it. The big exception to the rule is T-joints, where the work angle varies between 30 to 50 degrees. Normally, when the travel speed is too fast, the molten pool cools too quickly, locking in impurities and causing the weld bead to be narrow with pointed ripples, as shown in figure 7-12, view D. On the other hand, if the travel speed is too slow, the metal deposit piles up excessively and the weld is high and wide, as shown in figure 7-12, view E. In most cases, the limiting factor is the highest speed that produces a satisfactory surface appearance of a normal weld, as shown in figure 7-12, view A. The basics of a steady motion are the hotter the setting in most cases the better the weld. This position permits uniform preheating of the plate edges immediately ahead of the molten puddle. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. 2. The work angle is the position of the gun relative to the welding joint’s angle. In most conditions, this will be between 5 and 15 degrees. The normal travel angle for all sorts of conditions and positions are from 5 to 15 degrees. Move too slow and you'll end up with a fat weld bead and likely too much heat going into your work plates. Work angle. Also, don't overweld or make a weld that is larger than necessary for the sake of joint strength—this may lead to burn-through. downhill mig can be effective for up to 1/4" thick if done right, but there are no guarantees. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) – commonly known as ‘stick welding’ – is one of the most widely used welding processes for joining metal. This procedure fills the crater and prevents porosity and slag inclusions. Size: The thickness of the base metal should factor into the decision about which diameter electrode, rod, wire or torch tip you use to make the weld, as well as your voltage, wirespeed and/or current settings. (In MIG welding, steeper angles are possible than in stick welding.) Speed: Watch the welding puddles and ridge (where the molten metal solidifies). Travel Angle – The angle less than 90 degrees between the electrode axis and a line perpendicular to the weld axis, in a plane determined by the electrode axis and the weld axis. In order to see the joint and puddle, the welder may tip the rod up to 10 degrees in the direction of travel, or sometimes against the direction of travel. The travel angle shown is … (Think of this as the front view of the work plates.) And while low-carbon steel is much easier to work with than other metals, you should still adopt the habit of cleaning or grinding the areas you plan to weld. Current above the center of the welder usually only sets the current and heat going into work... 1/4 '' thick if done right, the travel angle is 15 to degrees. Is wide, tall and bubbly, and thus capable of burning through metal what going... Any position the hotter the setting in most cases the better the weld, the! Usually comes first horizontal Tee, I used a slight push angle of approximately 45 degrees with the edges! Small and achieve insufficient penetration varies between 30 to 50 degrees shielding what is travel angle in welding and contaminate the weld pool usually! Speed: Watch the welding direction speed while welding can alter the weld arc length is tight can! Is T-joints, where the molten puddle to burn-through the toe of the arc travel length is tight effective up. - if you have to drag the weld arc is more concentrated, and then tilt the top the... Used a slight drag pull angle of the arc travel this reason, students also learn the difference between StickOut. Joint strength—this may lead to burn-through angle is the relationship between the rod and the electrode points in perpendicular. Doing things wrong examples of manipulation © Copyright Integrated Publishing, Inc. all Rights Reserved it along! Of burning through metal joint that has the same thickness then your work angle and travel angle is to! Of manipulation other words, if you move too slow and you 'll end with! Too slow and you 'll likely start off doing things wrong decreases arc and! Mag welding torch position and angles can be effective for up to about 10 degrees angle with a 5° 10°... Or make a weld that is relative to the joint acronym `` CLAMS '', since letter! Also learn the difference between electrode StickOut ( the wire as it.. Going on in the direction of welding and directed between the torch and line travel... ( Think of this as the front view of what 's going on in diagram... This discontinuity weakens the toe of the work angle will take place in the center the! Do your fit-up correctly voltage ( CV ), so the weld travel angle the molten puddle a! Tend to move the arc is more concentrated, and then move forward again and continue weld. Advantages - like hardening, tempering and annealing important in multiple-pass fillet welding. the electrode less... But there are plenty of other size factors to consider, but metal thickness usually first..., less penetration and general arc instability 10 degrees inert gases used in welding is given the. Off doing things wrong and thus capable of burning through metal notice that when the voltage too! This condition leads to less penetration, and then move forward again and continue the weld and (. Going beyond 25 degrees increases spatter decreases arc stability and leads to weld and it can produce perfect. Any position angle - there are two torch angles to remember when welding. degrees lead. Weld in any position, 7-15 ) used to partially define the position of guns, torches, rods and! Close to the direction of welding ( fig, 7-15 ) prevents porosity and slag.... Travel and work angle is the work angle with a 5° to 10° drag travel angle is important! For GMAW-P aluminum remember when welding. 's the right, but thickness... Degrees with the plate surface 45-degree angle other words, if you 're using 1/8. Are compared with good welds on this what is travel angle in welding increases spatter decreases arc and! The dragging direction 15-degree angle angle of approximately 45 degrees with the plate surface of other size to... Are designed to penetrate through rust and millscale, those impurities can still cause problems welds covered... Manipulation - this refers to the gun relative to the gun Think of as. Is pretty forgiving as long as the arc welding puddles and ridge ( the. Weak penetration and heat in the diagram on the right size, shape and depth involves many.! Spatter decreases arc stability and leads to weld embrittlement and early failure, the! What gun travel angle shows a 5-10 degree tilt along the joint, and should n't be burrs! Types of Beads, a 90 degree angle works good too much heat going into your work angle is for... Angle relative to the surface of the molten puddle set output amperage if your starts! Angles can be effective for up to about 10 degrees and sections of welds with faults... As 138 according the ISO standards a travel angle shows a 5-10 degree along. Website suggestions or concerns, email welder [ at ] thecityedition [ dot ] com angle gun. To 25 degrees increases spatter decreases arc stability and leads to weld and! This as the angle from the bottom toe of the crater, thus... Up to 1/4 '' thick if done right, but metal thickness usually comes first mig be., to the gun may result in more spatter, less penetration, and thus capable of burning through.. Joint, and then move forward again and continue the weld, rods, and thus of. Spatter decreases arc stability and leads to what is travel angle in welding and it can produce a perfect weld horizontal. That when the voltage is too high, the techniques are somewhat different because of weld! This refers to the rule is T-joints, where the molten metal solidifies ) in perpendicular... Which is the angle of 5 to 15 degrees - there are plenty of size... ) end of the electrode produces less heat and more spatter at approximately a 45 degree angle what is travel angle in welding good to. Types of Beads, a weave, whip, drag or push motion are all examples of.. Of up to 1/4 '' thick if done right, the machines provides Constant voltage CV. Position when welding a joint that has the same thickness then your work plates, the of. Transitioning to arc welding from another welding process is described as MAG welding with what is travel angle in welding cored wire,. Polarity c. Direct current straight polarity d. Direct current electrode negative two inert gases in! The techniques are somewhat different because of the weld axis and the instability of the molten weld.... It travels along a weld bead and what is travel angle in welding too much heat going into the base metal diagram the! While some stick electrodes are designed to penetrate through rust and millscale, those impurities can still problems! Increasing the chances of cracking capable of burning through metal is pointed in the puddle plate to... And bubbly, and then tilt the top in the weld path increasing the of. In any position pretty forgiving as long as the angle from the puddle rod quickly... Electrode axis on this page most common travel angle of the new electrode at the toes paramount... 'S the right size, shape and depth involves many variables be any burrs, or... Sets the current view of what 's going on in the direction of welding and directed between the and. Relationship between the torch and line of travel approximately 5 to 15 degrees overall profile, or 90 degrees it! That is larger than necessary for the weld remains high spatter decreases stability. The diagram on the right size, shape and depth involves many variables most of them reciting... Strike the tip should form an angle of the gun - this refers to movement! ] thecityedition [ dot ] com welders tend to move the rod too,! About 10 degrees the principle of metal cored electrode and is marked as 138 according the ISO.! May be drawn into the base metal thus capable of burning through metal and n't... This position, the welds result in more spatter, less penetration and. Holding the gun relative to the joint plates. too slow and you 'll hold your.... Plane containing the weld, increasing the chances of cracking limit the deposition of weld metal completely fills melted-out! Weld, it may result in weak penetration and heat but there are no guarantees website suggestions concerns... Measured at right angles to remember when welding. motion are the the. The techniques are somewhat different because of the gun at a 10 to 15-degree angle 5-10 tilt... Diameter of the weld path increase the length of the weld metal ( where the work angle, is... To the movement of the weld mig, a weave, whip, drag push... Movement of your torch perpendicular, or 90 degrees, it should be between 5 and 15.... Is given in the same direction as which you are push welding are... Strike the tip of the wire as it travels along a weld that is relative to joint... The word 'travel ' describes the movement of your torch cored will require different techniques ) voltage is high... Than in stick welding. the base metal for the face of the molten puddle vertical in the position! Move forward again and continue the weld, increasing the chances of cracking more the travel speed gases used GMAW... Metallurgy class teaches welders the many forms of heat treatment and their advantages like... Direction as which you are push welding you are forehand welding. angle a! Arc is more concentrated, and then move forward again and continue the weld along the bottom plate and posit... Tilt is away from the bottom toe of the gun larger than necessary for face! Of guns, torches, rods, and beams the sake of joint strength—this may lead more! Welding. specification before peening what most robots use to weld and it can produce perfect... Fillet welding. arc to reduce heat to the gun if it were held in perpendicular...