Hekla and Mt. Situated in the south west of Iceland, Eyjafjallajokull is an 800,000 year old volcano with an almost unpronounceable name that was thrust into the limelight when it erupted in 2010… causing an ash cloud that grounded aviation in the northern hemisphere.It is reckoned to be the oldest active strato volcano on the island. Test shows how ash affects a jet engine. While Eyjafjallajökull’s eruption was huge and disruptive, it pales in comparison to the potential of Katla. A short time-lapse from April 17, 2010. The Volcano was featured in the 2013 movie, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, where Walter had to flee from an eruption after pursuing photographer Sean O'Connell to Iceland. Its nearest active neighbours are Katla, to the northeast, and Eldfell, on Heimaey, to the southwest. The sources describe heavy ash fall in the area around the volcano, especially to the south and west.[9]. When the 1000°C hot lava mass and the snow/ice come into contact huge clouds of steam are formed. The main outlet glaciers are to the north: Gígjökull, flowing into Lónið, and Steinholtsjökull, flowing into Steinholtslón. Different parts of the name mean […] The word jökull, meaning glacier or ice cap, is a cognate with the Middle English word ikel surviving in the -icle of English icicle. Nearly all flights in Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean were suspended for almost a week, ... an ash plume is formed of many tiny particles of sediment. At its highest point Eyjafjallajökull rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 metres) above sea level. The edge of the lava flow very slowly moved outward from the main lava flow. The main outlet glaciers are to the north: Gígjökull, flowing into Lónið, and Steinholtsjökull, flowing into Steinholtslón. [24], Icelandic Post issued three special stamps in 2010 for the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. Eyjafjallajökull, lying in south-west of Iceland, is a volcano covered by an ice cap. f) Describe the ash plume created by the eruption. The volcanic rocks extracted from the quarry are andesite. The Giant’s Causeway formed between 50 and 60 million years ago, when the region that now sits on the Antrim coastline was subject to intense volcanic activity. In 1823, some men went hiking up on Eyjafjallajökull to inspect the craters. Eyjafjallajökull broke out in the years 920 and 1612. summit, a crater lake has formed, with a scoria rim, ... Eyjafjallajökull volcano is adjacent to Katla, with only three inferred eruptions in the same time interval. Records show eruptions in 920, 1612 or 1613, 1821–23, and 2010. On March 21, fountains of lava began exiting through a 0.3-mile- (500-metre-) long vent in the ice-free Fimmvörduháls Pass, which separates the Eyjafjallajökull glacier from the larger glacier Mýrdalsjökull to the east. During eruptions, rapid deflation occurs as magma flows out and pressure is reduced. He serves currently as the editor of Earth and life sciences, covering climatology, geology, zoology, and other topics that relate to... What is the highest mountain range in South America? These are the first in a series of interferograms anticipated to be formed showing the course of the eruption. It is located on the south coast of the island of Iceland, about 3km inland. Here are some facts about Eyjafjallajokull.
It is located near the south shore between Mt. It is located near the south shore between Mt. Mud, ice, and meltwater running off the volcano swelled local rivers and streams, especially the Markarfljót glacial river west of the volcano, which flooded farmland and damaged roads. Iceland's favorite hiking trail over the mountain pass Fimmvörðuháls leading into the lower part of the Highlands passes between Eyjafjallajökull glacier and Mýrdalsjökull glacier. It formed as the lava was rapidly quenched by its interaction with the ice, and ensuing meltwater. The ice-cap that covers Eyjafjallajökull takes up about 100 square kilometers. The name means "glacier" (or more properly here "ice cap") of the Eyjafjöll. Iceland is formed (still being formed) by the Eurasian plate drifting east and the American plate drifting west in the gap in between magma comes to the surface forming volcanoes, Iceland is also located on a hot-spot, this is a place on the earth were a volcano comes up that is of a different kind. How was Eyjafjallajökull formed? From the end of June until the beginning of August 1822, another sequence of explosive eruptions followed. The word is a compound of three different words. The ice cap covers an area of about 100 square kilometres (40 square miles), feeding many outlet glaciers. 1 2 3. When about 15,000,000 cubic metres (530,000,000 cubic feet) of material hit the glacier a massive amount of air, ice, and water began to move out from under the glacier into the lagoon at the foot of the glacier.[6]. Expanding gases from the rapid vaporization of ice started a series of moderate phreatomagmatic explosions (which result from the contact of water and magma) that sent a plume of steam and ash almost 7 miles (11 km) into the atmosphere. About 30 minutes played in 18 second. The volcanic edifice is an elongated, flat cone of about 1650 m height. NOW 50% OFF! d) Which area of the island was worst affected by the Lava flow? Fearing the damage to commercial aircraft and potential loss of life that could result from flying through the ash cloud, many European countries closed their national airspace and grounded flights for several days. The ice-cap atop Eyjafjallajökull . Height 3.35 in ceramic Here lava is flowing into the longer Hvannárgil just an hour after it going down the canyon. Eyjafjallajökull volcano is an ice-cap covered stratovolcano located to the north of Skógar (Skogar) and to the west of Mýrdalsjökull (Myrdalsjokull) glacier in southern Iceland. [11] This gave geophysicists evidence that magma was pouring from underneath the crust into the magma chamber of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano and that pressure stemming from the process caused the huge crustal displacement at Þorvaldseyri farm. Being so small gives you a change of getting close to it. Updates? If this age estimate is accurate, Eyjafjallajökull is one of the oldest active volcanoes in Iceland. A literal part-by-part translation of Eyjafjallajökull would thus be "Islands' Mountains' ice cap". By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It can be timed because the seismometers at Kirkjubæjarklausturmonitored … Eyjafjallajökull on TV The south face of the mountain was once part of Iceland's coastline, from which, over thousands of years, the sea has retreated some 5 km (3 mi). The mountain itself, a stratovolcano, stands 1,651 metres (5,417 ft) at its highest point, and has a crater 3 to 4 kilometres (2 to 2 1⁄2 miles) in diameter, open to the north. e) What is Tephra and how does it form? The period from August to December 1822 seemed quieter, but farmers attributed the death of cattle and sheep in the Eyjafjörður area to poisoning from this eruption, which modern analysis identifies as fluoride poisoning. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. Bardon Hill rocks formed from a volcano in Precambrian times, about 570 million years ago. b) What type of Volcano is Eyjafjallajökull? Areas were flooded because of the glacier melt water which lay above the volcano. Its eruption in 2010 interfered with European and transatlantic flights for two weeks. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 and again from 1821 to 1823 when it caused a glacial lake outburst flood (or jökulhlaup). The Eyjafjallajökull volcano, one of the oldest active volcanoes in Iceland, is located in the volcanic flank zone of South Iceland, a few tens of kilometers off the nearest branch of the mid-Atlantic plate boundary. Eyjafjallajökull is a basalt/andesite stratovolcano (composite volcano) associated with the divergent Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which separates the North American and Eurasian plates. Iceland is outlined at top left; in the plume's path are the Faroe and Shetland islands. Iceland Volcano Tour to Eyjafjallajökull. Eyjafjallajökull feeds Seljalandsfoss waterfall. Eyjafjallajökull’s height is 1,651 meters (5,417 feet). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. It traces the history of the farm, gravely afflicted by the recent eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, contains news regarding the farming, as … On 16 January 1967 at 13:47:55 there was an explosion on the glacier. [21] Katla did not display any unusual activity (such as expansion of the crust or seismic activity) during the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, though geologists have been concerned about the general instability of Katla since 1999. It consists of an elongated ice-covered stratovolcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. This second eruption threw volcanic ash several kilometres up in the atmosphere, which led to air travel disruption in northwest Europe for six days from 15 to 21 April 2010 and again, in May 2010,[clarification needed] including the closure of airspace over many parts of Europe. Preceding the eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano, there was seismic and volcanic activity at Fimmvörðuháls (Fimmvorduhals). Kastljósið 22.3.2010, Sjónvarpið, "Viðtal við Dr. Pál Einarsson, jarðeðlisfræðing", Effects of the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Air travel disruption after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, "Eyjafjallajokull | glacier, Iceland | Britannica.com", "Increasing signs of activity at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland: Eruptions", "Iceland's volcanic ash halts flights in northern Europe", "Jarðskjálftahrina undir Eyjafjallajökli", "Ash chaos: Row grows over airspace shutdown costs", "Met Office: Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres", "Iceland Meteorological office – Earthquakes Mýrdalsjökull, Iceland", "World's first automated volcano forecast predicts Mount Etna's eruptions", "Iceland prepares for second, more devastating volcanic eruption", "Newsnight – Olafur Grimsson: Eruption is only 'small rehearsal, "Stamps created from Eyjafjallajokull volcano ash", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Ash from Iceland volcano could affect UK flights, Volcanic eruption starts on top of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, Icelandic volcanic eruption prompts evacuation, flight diversions, A collection of satellite images from the CIMSS Satellite Blog, More from Eyjafjallajökull – The Big Picture. Plume from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (tan streak) moving southeast over the North Atlantic Ocean, April 15, 2010. Eyjafjallajökull volcano is in good company. The cloud not only darkened the sky but also interfered with hundreds of plane flights. Eyjafjallajökull on TV Also in response to Eyjafjallajökull's impact on air travel, ICAO formed the International Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF) in May 2010, charging it to examine how best to define hazardous airspace and manage aviation risk. It did not flood that much: most of it went into rivers, but if it had flooded down the farm valleys it could have swept away all the farms in the valley. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano last erupted on 14 April 2010 in Iceland. The most pronounced expression of geothermal activity at Eyjafjallajökull is confined to its south flank, in the area around Seljavellir . Information came trickling in throughout the (sleepless) night, but come daylight a better picture formed of what was going on. Volcanologists use samples from Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland to ... have reproduced in the laboratory the process through which the causeway’s 40,000 near-perfect hexagonal columns were formed. John P. Rafferty writes about Earth processes and the environment. Eyjafjallajökull consists of a volcano completely covered by an ice cap. volcano overview. The word fjalla is the genitive plural of fjöll, and so Eyjafjalla is the genitive form of Eyjafjöll and means: "of the Eyjafjöll". Iceland’s highway No. https://www.britannica.com/place/Eyjafjallajokull-volcano, NASA - Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland, Global Volcanism Program - Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjallajökull volcano - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The Eyjafjallajökull eruption sequence of 2010, which lasted from January until May of that year, began with the onset of clusters of small earthquakes, and by early March the earthquake activity had increased in intensity and frequency. Over time, the earthquakes rose towards the surface, and land near the volcano rose at least 40 millimeters (2 inches)—both indications that magma was moving underneath the volcano. Shot on July 28, 2010, A film crew lands on Eyjafjallajokull during the 2010 eruption, Volcanic Eyjafjallajökull run off: Seljalandsfoss Waterfall (binaural recording optimized for headphones), Magma pathways and earthquakes at Eyjafjallajökull, Icelandic Meteorological Institute (PDF), SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for Eyjafjallajökull, Volcanic Ash Advisory Graphical Forecast for the North Atlantic region, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eyjafjallajökull&oldid=991825424, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2011, Wikipedia external links cleanup from November 2015, Wikipedia spam cleanup from November 2015, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 00:50. Video of the first 2010 eruption by Raw Iceland, Video of the aftermath of Eyjafjallajokull eruption. a) When did the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull begin and how long did the eruption last? 1, was closed between Skógar and the crossroads to Gunnarsholt east of Hella. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! In 1952, a U.S. rescue plane, carrying five aboard, crashed into Eyjafjallajokull. Eyjafjallajökull is an icecap covered stratovolcano rising to an elevation of 1666 m.a.s.l. Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is located in South Iceland, about 100 miles (160 km) from Reykjavik. The heat from the lava quickly melted and vaporized the glacier ice above. Eyjafjallajökull, English Eyjafjalla Glacier, glacier, southern Iceland.The former western extension of Mýrdalsjökull (Mýrdals Glacier), from which it is now separated by the small ice-free Fimmvörduháls Pass, Eyjafjallajökull covers an area of about 40 square miles (100 square km). About Eyjafjallajokull Glacier. It feeds glaciers Gígjökull and Steinholtsjökull. Lace your climbing boots tight, because this quiz will test whether you can conquer the highest peaks of knowledge. It is part of a chain of volcanoes stretching across Iceland. c) Describe the Lava flow produced by the eruption. The ice covers an area in the summit region about 80 km 2 in size. However, the heat inside is not melting the ice cap that covers the volcano. It is located near the south shore between Mt. It accounts for 90 percent of the lava which poured out under Gígjökull. Some geophysicists in Iceland believe that the Eyjafjallajökull eruption may trigger an eruption of Katla, which would cause major flooding due to melting of glacial ice and send up massive plumes of ash. This plume was later measured to be 10 km high, thus having a significant impact on the immediate area, as well as surrounding areas in Europe. It can be timed because the seismometers at Kirkjubæjarklaustur monitored the movement. On 14 April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull resumed erupting after a brief pause, this time from the top crater in the centre of the glacier, causing jökulhlaup (meltwater floods) to rush down the nearby rivers, and requiring 800 people to be evacuated. Because it moved so slowly I could get very close to its hot edge. Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland This is earth in it´s making. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the E and W flanks, but are more prominent on the western side. Eyjafjallajökull is a basalt/andesite stratovolcano (composite volcano) associated with the divergent Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which separates the North American and Eurasian plates. The ash of Eyjafjallajökull's 1821 eruptions is to be found all over the south of Iceland. Who doesn't love being #1? Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is located in South Iceland, about 100 miles (160 km) from Reykjavik. The plume was driven southeast, across the North Atlantic Ocean to northern Europe, by the prevailing winds. The volcano has erupted relatively frequently since the Last Glacial Period, most recently in 2010,[4][5] when, although relatively small for a volcanic eruption, it caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe for a week. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were volcanic events at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruptions, caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2010. The lava flow from the Eyjafjallajökull Eruption is small compared to most lava flows from other volcanos in Iceland. Iceland's favorite hiking trail Fimmvörðuháls. Records kept since Iceland was settled show that Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 or 1613, and 1821–23. The former coastline now consists of sheer cliffs with many waterfalls, of which the best known is Skógafoss. The ice-cap that covers Eyjafjallajökull takes up about 100 square kilometers. A second layer poured out over the top. Answer. Be the first to answer this question. Eyjafjallajökull volcano, also called Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjalla volcano, Eyjafjöll, or Eyjafjalla Glacier volcano, subglacial volcano, southern Iceland, lying within the country’s East Volcanic Zone. Two new craters were formed in this eruption called Magni and Móði after the sons of Thor, the Norse god of thunder. The name probably refers to the close by archipelago of Vestmannaeyjar. Its highest point rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 metres) above sea level. Its unusual and difficult to pronounce name comes from the combination of various words with different meanings. Eyjafjallajökull is still an active volcano. A 500-meter- (2,000-foot) long fissure opened in the Fimmvörduháls pass to the west of the ice-covered summit of Eyjafjallajökull. Eyjafjallajökull feeds Seljalandsfoss waterfall. The farms in the valley were however covered in a soft layer of ash, which the farmers thought would give bad crops, but the warmth and nutrition from the ash enabled the crops to grow rather well. Fimmvorduhals eruption. It sits between one of the largest cascades in Iceland, Skógafoss Waterfall, and Thórsmörk (Þórsmörk), a mountain ridge with a deep valley beloved by hikers from all over the world. Asked by Wiki User. [7], The stratovolcano, whose vents follow an east–west trend, is composed of basalt to andesite lavas. It has been an active volcano since many decades. 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