He gives no dates, however. BENEDICT OF NURSIA (c. 480 – 547), Christian saint, monastic founder, and spiritual leader. He not only lived on the cusp of the fall of the Roman Empire, but he had some direct communication with a Goth King in his time. As his reputation for holiness—and perhaps performing miracles—spread, more and more monks tried to attach themselves to him. A daily newsletter featuring the most important and significant events on each day in Christian History. Prayer of St Benedict of Nursia. Book Two con­sists of a pro­logue and thirty-eight suc­cinct chapters. Although he first lived with a "company of virtuous men," soon a miracle the holy man performed, fixing a broken vessel, attracted attention. He returned to his cave, but again disciples flocked to him, and he founded 12 monasteries, each with 12 monks, with himself in general control of all. He reluctantly agreed to become abbot of a small monastery, but after the attempted murder, he moved back into solitude. Benedict was born to a noble family in Nursia, Italy, about 480 AD. NOW 50% OFF! Though absolute certainty has not yet been reached, a majority of competent scholars favour the earlier composition of the “Rule of the Master.” If this is accepted, about one-third of Benedict’s Rule (if the formal liturgical chapters are excluded) is derived from the Master. Event… ST. BENEDICT of NURSIA (NORCIA)and the RULE OF ST. BENEDICTSt. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Benedict lived during a quite transitional time in history. The only authentic life of Benedict of Nursia is that contained in the second book of St. Gregory's Dialogues.It is more of a character sketch than a … For Expats and Missionaries, COVID-19 Was a Crossroads, How the ‘World’s Largest Family’ Survived a Global Pandemic. He retired to a cave at Subiaco, some 30 miles east of Rome, where he lived as a hermit and endured severe privations. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Choisissez parmi des contenus premium St. Benedict Of Nursia de la plus haute qualité. The only authentic life of Benedict of Nursia is that contained in … So men came to Benedict and asked him to help them lead holy lives. Benedict thus served as a link between the monasticism of the East and the new age that was dawning. Archivé de l'original le 21 avril 2014. This balance of prayer, work, and study is another of Benedict’s legacies. Before he took it, he blessed it, as was the custom. As a result, St Benedict is considered the father of Western monasticism. At the age of fourteen, he left Rome and lived in a cave near Subiaco, where he lived for three years. A restored Benedictine monastery sits atop Monte Cassino, at Cassino, Italy. ", But he was no libertine: "The good of all concerned, however, may prompt us to a little strictness in order to amend faults and to safeguard love.". Benedict of Nursia: Benedict was born at Nursia (Norcia) in Umbria, Italy, around 480 AD. There is a frank allowance for weaknesses and failure, as well as compassion for the physically weak. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. List of officers from Council #16746. Rule of St. Benedict, written in Beneventan script at Montecassino, Italy, late 11th century. It is that of a spiritual master, fitted and accustomed to rule and guide others, having himself found his peace in the acceptance of Christ. His life spanned the decades in which the decayed imperial city became the Rome of the medieval papacy. The young Benedict moved from his birthplace (Nursia in Umbria) to Rome but soon abandoned the "eternal city" when he became disgusted with the paganism and immorality he saw there. St Benedict remains popular in modern times: A stamp printed in Austria in 1993 shows a stained-glass window of St Benedict of Nursia, holding the poisoned cup in one hand, from Mariastern Abbey, Gwiggen, as part of the Monasteries and Abbeys stamp series. The only certain date in Benedict’s life is given by a visit from the Gothic king Totila about 542. Best known as the author of the monastic rule still followed by Benedictine and Cistercian monks and nuns. Until 1938 the Rule had been considered as a personal achievement of St. Benedict, though it had always been recognized that he freely used the writings of the Desert Fathers, of St. Augustine of Hippo, and above all of St. John Cassian. St Benedict of Nursia wrote a series of instructions for his monastery at Monte Cassino, outlining instructions for a life of work and prayer in the monastic community. He also disciplined his flesh. When Benedict died, he was buried next to his sister, Scholastica, traditionally regarded his twin and also a follower of the monastic way. The only recognized authority for the facts of Benedict’s life is book 2 of the Dialogues of St. Gregory I, who said that he had obtained his information from four of Benedict’s disciples. The first consists of its clericalization. While still a student at Rome, the young Benedict discovered that the only way he could escape the evils of his world was in seclusion and religious devotion. These days everyone suffers from lack of focus. The au­then­tic­ity of this work has been hotly dis­puted, es­pe­cially by Dr Fran­cis Clarke in his two vol­ume work The Pseudo-Gre­go­rian Dialogues. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Author of. We can piece together, though, a sketch of his life. The evidence indicates that Benedict was born at Nursia, Italy, in about 480; that he studied in Rome, where he came under the influence of monastic orders from the Byzantine Empire; and that he turned to monasticism as a way of getting away from the evils of Rome. In the course of time this discretion has occasionally been abused in the defense of comfort and self-indulgence, but readers of the Rule can hardly fail to note the call to a full and exact observance of the counsels of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Ownership, even of the smallest thing, is forbidden. After some years as a hermit, he formed a cloister with other monks. Members. He was sent to Rome for his studies, but was repelled by the dissolute life of most of the populace, and withdrew to a solitary life at Subiaco. Trouvez les St. Benedict Of Nursia images et les photos d’actualités parfaites sur Getty Images. Gregory says that when Benedict came across a local chapel devoted to the old Roman god Apollo, he "beat in pieces the idol, overthrew the altar, set fire to the woods," and made it into a Christian sanctuary. CTWeekly delivers the best content from ChristianityToday.com to your inbox each week. BENEDICT OF NURSIA. He fled once again and took up residence in a mountain cave at Subiaco, near the site of a villa built by Nero. There he lived alone for three years, furnished with food and monastic garb by Romanus, a monk of one of the numerous monasteries nearby. We don't know if Benedict was overly strict or if his first monks were simply obstinate. We have so much stimuli hitting us all at once, from social media to the news, to our families. His most enduring achievement was the Rule of Saint Benedict, which became one of the most influential sets of religious rules in Middle Age Europe and earned him recognition as the originator of Western Christian monasticism . The working day is divided into three roughly equal portions: five to six hours of liturgical and other prayer; five hours of manual work, whether domestic work, craft work, garden work, or fieldwork; and four hours reading of the Scriptures and spiritual writings. Eventually Benedict’s plan for an ideal abbey was circulated to religious orders throughout Europe, and abbeys were generally built in accord with it in subsequent centuries. Yet, even if this be so, the Rule that imposed itself all over Europe by virtue of its excellence alone was not the long, rambling, and often idiosyncratic “Rule of the Master.” It was the Rule of St. Benedict, derived from various and disparate sources, that provided for the monastic way of life a directory, at once practical and spiritual, that continued in force after 1,500 years. Benedict, Gregory wrote, "perceived that the glass had in it the drink of death," called his monks together, said he forgave them, reminded them that he doubted from the beginning whether he was a suitable abbot for them, and concluded, "Go your ways, and seek some other father suitable to your own conditions, for I intend not now to stay any longer amongst you.". Benedict was the son of a Roman noble of Nursia, the modern Norcia, in Umbria. Saint Benedict of Nursia Council is our parish council of the Knights of Columbus. Taking ideas from a number of earlier monastic writings (and likely from his own experience), Benedict wrote a Rule for his monks, one that is today praised for its balanced approach to monastic life. Benedict was the son of a Roman noble of Nursia, a small town near Spoleto, and a tradition, which St. Bede accepts, makes him a twin with his sister Scholastica. Though Gregory’s work includes many signs and wonders, his outline of Benedict’s life may be accepted as historical. Later, disturbed by the intrigues of a neighbouring priest, he left the area, while the 12 monasteries continued in existence. Benedict of Nursia (“Benedict” means “blessed”) was born in Umbria, a region of central Italy, at a pivotal time in history. In 1964, in view of the work of monks following the Benedictine Rule in the evangelization and civilization of so many European countries in the Middle Ages, Pope Paul VI proclaimed him the patron saint of all Europe. On the occasion of the dedication of the rebuilt monastery of Monte Cassino in 1964, Pope Paul VI proclaimed St. Benedict the principal, heavenly patron of the whole of Europe. You know it as the Rule of St. Benedict, which was written about the year 530 a.d. The Rule consists of five significant dimensions: silence, prayer, humility, manual labor, and obedience. 480 - ca. St. Benedict also displayed a spirit of moderation. His Rule is concerned with a life spent wholly in community, and among his contributions to the practices of the monastic life none is more important than his establishment of a full year’s probation, followed by a solemn vow of obedience to the Rule as mediated by the abbot of the monastery to which the monk vowed a lifelong residence. Events. Benedict was born as the Roman Empire was disintegrating, and during his youth, the Italian peninsula was the scene of constant war between barbarian tribes. Apart from a short poem at­trib­uted to Mark of Monte Cassino, the only an­cient ac­count of Bene­dict is found in the sec­ond vol­ume of Pope Gre­gory I's four-book Di­a­logues, thought to have been writ­ten in 593. He is the patron saint of Europe. Subscribers receive full access to the archives. The first monks who tried to live under Benedict's direction hated his regimen, so much so they plotted to kill their abbot. Benedict had begun his monastic life as a hermit, but he had come to see the difficulties and spiritual dangers of a solitary life, even though he continued to regard it as the crown of the monastic life for a mature and experienced spirit. Benedict of Nursia Benedict of Nursia (480CE - 547CE) - Saint Benedict, founded the Order of the Benedictines. He appoints his own officials—prior, cellarer (steward), novice master, guest master, and the rest—and controls all the activities of individuals and the organizations of the common life. Gregory, in his only reference to the Rule, described it as clear in language and outstanding in its discretion. …8th century was that of Benedict of Nursia (, …shaped by the rule of Benedict of Nursia, has been characterized by two distinct developments. The ordering of the offices for the canonical hours (daily services) is laid down with precision. Through this, the Benedict of Nursia sets the fundamentals of a religious and monastic life. Remarkable as is this careful and comprehensive arrangement, the spiritual and human counsel given generously throughout the Rule is uniquely noteworthy among all the monastic and religious rules of the Middle Ages. Benedict is looked upon as the father of Western monasticism because of the widespread influence of his rule. Again monks sought him out, and before long he had established 12 monasteries with 12 monks in each. Benedict, a book of precepts composed by the sixth-century father of Western monasticism, Benedict of Nursia, in response to the collapse of Roman civilization. get one year free. Sign Up For Our Newsletter The City of Mensch: Orthodox Judaism holds lessons for the Benedict Option--but not necessarily the ones Rod Dreher thinks it does Benedict of Nursia (c.480–547) is a Christian saint, honored by the Anglican Church and the Catholic Church as the patron saint of Europe and students. October 13, 2020 May 22, 2020 by BeautySoAncient. Regius Professor of Modern History, University of Cambridge, 1954–63. They hosted a grand opening celebration on August 15, 2012 - the Solemnity of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. He sought as little contact as possible with others. All events and blogs. "The good of all concerned, however, may prompt us to a little strictness in order to amend faults and to safeguard love.". Benedict of Nursia: Abbot of Monte Cassino, c. 540 July 11: Proverbs 2:1-9; Philippians 2:12–16; Luke 14:27–33; Psalm 119:129–136; or [Common of a Monastic or Professed Religious] [Common of a Theologian] [Of the Holy Spirit] [Of the Incarnation] [For the Ministry III] Preface of a Saint (2) The Collect . Saint Benedict of Nursia (ca. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Benedict stripped himself and ran naked into thorn bushes so that "all his flesh was pitifully torn: and so by the wounds of his body, he cured the wounds of his soul, in that he turned pleasure into pain, and by the outward burning of extreme smart, quenched that fire.". This portion contains the prologue and the chapters on humility, obedience, and the abbot, which are among the most familiar and admired sections of the Rule. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! But the envy of local clergy (one of whom, according to Gregory, tried to put the poison in a loaf of bread) so disturbed Benedict that he moved again, and with some disciples established another monastery, this time on the mountain above Cassino, about 80 miles south of Rome. Day 1. Novices, guests, the sick, readers, cooks, servers, and porters all receive attention, and punishments for faults are set out in detail. His Rule carefully integrated prayer, manual labor, and study into a well-rounded daily routine that has shaped Christianity for nearly 1,500 years. On the constitutional level, Benedict’s supreme achievement was to provide a succinct and complete directory for the government and the spiritual and material well-being of a monastery. St. Benedict, in full Saint Benedict of Nursia, Nursia also spelled Norcia, (born c. 480 ce, Nursia [Italy]—died c. 547, Monte Cassino; feast day July 11, formerly March 21), founder of the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino and father of Western monasticism; the rule that he established became the norm for monastic living throughout Europe. Besides the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, it stressed communal living, physical labor, common meals, and the avoidance of unnecessary conversation. Benedict was born as the Roman Empire was disintegrating, and during his youth, the Italian peninsula was the scene of constant war between barbarian tribes. His boyhood was spent in Rome , where he lived with his parents and attended the schools until he had reached his higher studies. According to Gregory, he was once nearly overcome with lust as he remembered a certain woman. His monks are allowed clothes suited to the climate, sufficient food (with no specified fasting apart from the times observed by the Roman church), and sufficient sleep (7 1/2–8 hours). Here St. Benedict lived in continual prayer and asceticism for three years. Benedict’s discretion is manifested in his repeated allowances for differences of treatment according to age, capabilities, dispositions, needs, and spiritual stature; beyond this is the striking humanity of his frank allowance for weaknesses and failure, of his compassion for the physically weak, and of his mingling of spiritual with purely practical counsel. In 546 Rome was sacked and emptied of inhabitants by the Gothic king Totila, and, when the attempt of Emperor Justinian I to reconquer and hold Italy failed, the papacy filled the administrative vacuum and shortly thereafter became the sovereign power of a small Italian dominion virtually independent of the Eastern Empire. Novena To St. Benedict of Nursia # 2. When the fame of his sanctity spread, Benedict was persuaded to become abbot of one of these monasteries. In the Holy Rule, St. Benedict said: “Listen, O my son, to the precepts of the master, and incline the ear of your heart, and cheerfully receive and faithfully execute the admonitions of your loving Father, that by the toil of obedience you may return to Him from whom by the sloth of disobedience you have gone away. St. Benedict was born at Nursia, in Italy, around 470 A.D. Benedict was born of good family and was sent by his parents to Roman schools. Sent to school in Rome, he soon fled the worldliness of life in the city, abandoning his secular studies to become a monk. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 547) Transitus celebrated 21 March Patriarch of Western Monasticism Co-Patron of Europe celebrated 11 July: By +Abbot Primate Jerome Theisen OSB (1930-1995). https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Benedict-of-Nursia, Saint Benedict Church - A Life of Saint Benedict, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of St. Benedict of Nursia, Benedict of Nursia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Benedict’s feast day is kept by monks on March 21, the traditional day of his death, and by the Roman Catholic Church in Europe on July 11. He should seek counsel of the seniors or of the whole body but is not bound by their advice. A Cloister on the Mountainside The Monastero di San Benedetto in Monte is perched above the ancient town of Nursia, birthplace of St. Benedict, founder of Western monasticism. When he grew up, he studied in Rome. In that year, however, an opinion suggesting that an anonymous document, the “Rule of the Master” (Regula magistri)—previously assumed to have plagiarized part of the Rule—was in fact one of the sources used by St. Benedict, provoked a lively debate. If we accept the date 480 for his birth, we may fix the date of his abandonment of his studies and leaving home at about 500. This was known as the ‘Benedictine Rule’, and became the norm for monastic living throughout medieval Europe. Benoît de Nursie (480 / 547) dit Saint Benoît, fonde l’ordre des Bénédictins. They put poison in a glass of wine and offered it to Benedict. Christianity Today strengthens the church by richly communicating the breadth of the true, good, and beautiful gospel. There are some prayers that are so powerful, that praying them daily enables us to make great strides in the spiritual life. It is this combination of compassion and discipline that made the Rule a model for many later monastic orders besides the Benedictine, and one reason why monasticism became such a viable life for so many over the next centuries, during which the institution literally shaped the future of Europe. By Benedict of Nursia [Christian History originally published this article in Christian History Issue #19 in 1988] Born into a wealthy family in Nursia, Italy, Benedict (c. 480–543) left school as a teenager, renounced the world and around 500 retreated to a cave at Subiaco. The monks explain this motto as follows: Then, wanting to pray alone, Benedict lived for three years in a cave near Subiaco. Trusted Journalism. Redirects to St. Benedict of Nursia, Milton Parish website. He is bound only by the law of God and the Rule, but he is continually advised that he must answer for his monks, as well as for himself, at the judgment seat of God. A few disciples followed Benedict south, where he settled on the summit of a hill rising steeply above Cassino, halfway between Rome and Naples. Patricians and senators of Rome offered their sons to become monks under his care, and from these novices came two of his best-known disciples, Maurus and Placid. Get the best from CT editors, delivered straight to your inbox! Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He is known as the “father of Western monasticism,” having established a Rule that would become the norm for innumerable Christian monks and nuns. His sister Scholastica, who came to live nearby as the head of a nunnery, died shortly before her brother. He retired to Subiaco, 40 miles (65 kilometers) east of Rome, and lived in a cave there for several years. His reforming zeal was resisted, however, and an attempt was made to poison him. The district was still largely pagan, but the people were converted by his preaching. Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. 480 – 543), born at Nursia (), Italy, was the founder of western monasticism.Many of those monastic men and women belong to a Christian religious order named in his honor, the Order of Saint Benedict.. I suspect most fall somewhere in-between, but it was Benedict of Nursia who worked out his salvation with a very specific Rule. Early in 2012 the Monks of Norcia established a brewery in a renovated warehouse. Benedict’s character, as Gregory points out, must be discovered from his Rule, and the impression given there is of a wise and mature sanctity, authoritative but fatherly, and firm but loving. St. Benedict was a religious reformer who lived in Italy in the late 400s and early 500s. The abbot, elected for life by his monks, maintains supreme power and in all normal circumstances is accountable to no one. A group of monks asked him to be their abbot, but some of them found his rule too strict, and he returned alone to Subiaco. 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