66–68, Gilbert, Dennis, 1988. Somoza named himself director of the railway system and then used it to move his goods and crops at no charge to himself. In 1944, under pressure from the U.S., Somoza agreed to liberalize his rule. 29, 1956) was a Nicaraguan general, president, and dictator from 1936 to 1956. Su padre Anastasio Somoza Reyes sirvió como senador del partido conservador del departamento de Carazo durante ocho años. When Sacasa finally reached the presidency in 1933, the American ambassador persuaded him to name Somoza head of the National Guard. Despite widespread corruption and repression of dissent, they were able to receive support from the United States, which viewed them as anti-communist stalwarts and a source of stability. Despite his limited military experience, Somoza was able to rise through the ranks of the Nicaraguan National Guard (Guardia Nacional), the constabulary force organized by the United States Marines. His administration, while being one of the most corrupt in history and brutal to dissidents, was nevertheless supported by the United States because it was viewed as anti-communist. Perice Means Business, Philadelphia Peirce, 1989, 'The End and the Beginning; The Nicaraguan Revolution' John A. Booth, Pg. Shortly after being nominated, he was shot on 21 September 1956 by the poet Rigoberto López Pérez in the city of León, and died several days later in a Panama Canal Zone hospital. They returned to Nicaragua and had a formal Catholic wedding in León Cathedral. On February 21, 1934, Sandino was executed by the National Guard. Somoza campaigns for the presidency in 1936 on horseback in León with U.S. flag. Anastasio Somoza García (Feb. 1, 1896–Sept. But because his administration was anti-communist he was supported by the United States. No logró su propósito por 5 balazos que salieron de la pistola de un poeta. (After the Sandinistas came to power they renamed it Puerto Sandino). Anastasio Somoza Debayle Anastasio «Tacho» Somoza García (født 1. februar 1896 i San Marcos i Nicaragua, død 29. september 1956 i Léon i Nicaragua) var en nicaraguansk offiser og politiker som offisielt var Nicaraguas president fra 1937 til 1947 og fra 1950 til sin død i 1956, men som effektivt var landets diktator til han ble myrdet av en student i 1956. Who Were the Democratic Presidents of the United States? In the early 1930s the politics of Nicaragua were in turmoil and the country was occupied by the United States Marines. He also made substantial profits by granting concessions to foreign (primarily U.S.) companies to exploit gold, rubber, and timber, for which he received 'executive levies' and 'presidential commissions.' Sandino’s biggest issue was the presence of American marines in Nicaragua, and when they left in 1933, he finally agreed to negotiate a truce. The Nationalist Liberal Party nominated an elderly doctor named Leonardo Argüello, with Somoza using the National Guard to secure his election. This left him free to amass a huge personal fortune. Sisuliselt valitses ta maad ka vahepealsetel aastatel, ühtlasi pani ta aluse dünastiale, mis valitses maad 55 aastat. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, The Nicaraguan Revolution: History and Impact, Controversial Presidents of Central America. Somoza remained in power until 1956. López would eventually be named a national hero by the Sandinista government. In 1934, as director of the National Guard, Somoza had Augusto César Sandino killed. In the early 1950s, once again president, Somoza continued to build his empire, adding an airline, a shipping company, and several factories to his holdings. Il a été le premier des Somoza à diriger le pays. At the age of seven, he was enrolled at the Instituto Pedagógico La Salle, run by the Christian Brothers. In June 1936, Somoza forced Sacasa to resign. It should be further noted that this statement has been attributed to a variety of United States presidential administrations in regard to foreign dictators. Anastasio Somoza, in full Anastasio Somoza García, byname Tacho, (born Feb. 1, 1896, San Marcos, Nicaragua—died Sept. 29, 1956, Ancón, Panama Canal Zone), soldier-politician who was dictator of Nicaragua for 20 years. Somoza García, Anastasio (1896–1956)Anastasio Somoza García (b. [11], Fassl, Carl. His eldest son Luis Somoza Debayle, who was Speaker of the House at the time of Somoza Garcia's death, took over and was elected in his own right in 1957 to serve until 1963, to be succeeded by Dr. Rene Schick who served until his death in 1966. In 1912, the United States sent Marines to Nicaragua to bolster the conservative government. This sort of corruption had a lasting effect on the economy, stifling it and contributing to Nicaragua as a somewhat backward country for a long time. Anastasio Somoza García Popularity . En su juventud vivió en Filipinas, donde cursó estudios en la Escuela Pierce de Administración Empresarial. Part of the reason that the Somozas were able to retain power for so long was the support of the U.S. government, which saw them as anti-communist. While in León, Anastasio tried and failed at running several businesses: automobile sales, boxing promoter, meter reader for an electric company, and inspector of latrines at the Rockefeller Foundation's Sanitary Mission to Nicaragua. In another heavily rigged election, Somoza García again became president in 1950. This began the period of Somoza rule in the country that would not end until 1979. Somoza created both a dictatorship and a political dynasty; he was succeeded in office by his two sons, Luis and Anastasio. [5] Somoza, popularly known as "Tacho", amended the Constitution to centralize all power in his hands. The son of a wealthy coffee planter, Somoza was educated in the United States. It was meant to keep in check the armies raised by the liberals and conservatives in their endless skirmishing over control of the country. Politician. On 21 September 1956, he was shot by poet Rigoberto López Pérez. Anastasio Somoza García (1. veebruar 1896 San Marcos – 29. september 1956 Ancón) oli Nicaragua poliitik, kahel korral Nicaragua president. The National Guard had been established as a militia, trained and equipped by the U.S. Marines. Politician Born in Nicaragua #3. The Somoza regime was extremely crooked. His older son, Luis Somoza, succeeded him. Born In 1896. Mortally wounded, he was flown to the Panama Canal Zone where he died a week later. Those industries that they could not personally exploit, such as mining and timber, they leased to foreign (mostly U.S.) companies for a healthy share of the profits. Este martes se cumplen 84 años desde que el dictador nicaragüense Anastasio Somoza García obtuvo el poder y condenó a su país a más de 40 años de dictadura, tiranía y represión. Anastasio Somoza García (ur.1 lutego 1896 w San Marcos, zm. Anastasio "Tacho" Somoza García (San Marcos, 1 de Fevereiro de 1896 – León, 29 de Setembro de 1956) foi um militar e político da Nicarágua, trigésimo quarto e trigésimo nono Presidente da Nicarágua, mas efetivamente comandou o país como ditador de 1936 até ser assassinado em 1956. After waging a bitter, six-year struggle with the forces of General Augusto Sandino, in January 1933, the Marines evacuated the country following the election of Juan Bautista Sacasa as president. Il a été officiellement le président du Nicaragua de 1937 à 1947, puis de 1950 à 1956, mais a de facto exercé un pouvoir dictatorial de 1936 jusqu'à son assassinat. In 1914, he was elected vice-secretary of the Senate. Unions were legalized, and he agreed not to run for re-election in 1947. He stepped down briefly from the presidency from 1947–1950, bowing to pressure from the United States, but continued to rule through a series of puppet presidents, usually family. Family members and key supporters monopolized key positions in the government and military. He also had a son named José R. Somoza, born to an unknown mother. They had two sons, Luis Somoza Debayle and Anastasio Somoza Debayle, and a daughter, Lillian Somoza Debayle de Sevilla Sacasa. Franklin Roosevelt allegedly once said of him: “Somoza may be a son-of-a-bitch, but he’s our son-of-a-bitch.” There is little direct proof of this quote. The Great Depression had spread to Nicaragua and the people were unhappy. He was reelected in 1974 after a Constituent Assembly that lasted from 1972 to 1974. He even tried counterfeiting Nicaraguan currency and only avoided prison because of his family connections. Somoza failed to distinguish himself in battle, leading an unsuccessful attack on the garrison at San Marcos. [4] He took office on New Year's Day 1937. Returning to power in his own name in 1951, he maintained an iron grip on his own Liberal Party while making a deal with the Conservatives; thus, he faced no opposition. Anastasio Somoza García (1896-1956), est un homme d'État nicaraguayen. The president was declared 'incapacitated' by Congress and Somoza served in his stead. Su administración, aunque fue una de las más corruptas de la historia y brutal para los disidentes, fue sin embargo apoyada por los Estados Unidos porque fue considerada como anticomunista. When the administration of U.S. President Harry Truman refused to recognize the new government, a Constituent Assembly was convened, which appointed Somoza's uncle, Víctor Manuel Román y Reyes, as president. On September 21, 1956, Anastasio Somoza García was shot in the chest by young poet and musician Rigoberto López Pérez at a party in the city of León. Somoza still saw Sandino as a threat, so in early 1934 he arranged to have Sandino captured. “Anastasio "Tacho" Somoza García (1 February 1896 – 29 September 1956) was officially the 21st President of Nicaragua from 1 January 1937 to 1 May 1947 and from 21 May 1950 to 29 September 1956, but ruled effectively as dictator from 1936 until his assassination. The Marines remained until 1925 and as soon as they left, liberal factions went to war against the conservatives. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) supposedly remarked in 1939 that "Somoza may be a son of a bitch, but he's our son of a bitch. Politician. En 1914, fue elegido vicesecretario del Senado. Somoza was born in San Marcos, Carazo Department in Nicaragua, the son of Anastasio Somoza Reyes, a wealthy coffee planter, and Julia García, and a grandson of Anastasio Somoza Martínez and Isabel Reyes. In Philadelphia, Somoza met and courted Salvadora Debayle Sacas, who had a politically well-connected family that objected to the marriage. Before long, he was in absolute control of Nicaragua. Anastasio Somoza Garcia was the long-time president of Nicaragua and founder of a dynasty that ruled the country for 50 years. (He should not be confused with his son, Somoza DeBayle, also a former Nicaraguan dictator, who is entombed in Miami. In 1936, Somoza, whose power had been growing, took advantage of Sacasa’s vulnerability and forced him to resign, replacing him with Carlos Alberto Brenes, a Liberal Party politician who mostly answered to Somoza. In addition, there were many allegations of corruption against him and his government. Al volver a Nicaragua, intentó, sin éxito, establecerse como empresario. García was the son of a wealthy coffee planter.He was educated in Philadelphia where he met and married Salvadora Debayle Sacasa. Anastasio Somoza García (1 de febrero de 1896-29 de septiembre de 1956) fue un general, presidente y dictador nicaragüense de 1936 a 1956. Thus the statement remains apocryphal at this point, though Roosevelt and later presidents certainly supported the Somoza family and their rule over Nicaragua. Biography of Nicolas Maduro, Embattled President of Venezuela, John Quincy Adams: 6th President of the United States, 10 of the Most Influential Presidents of the United States, Biography of Fulgencio Batista, Cuban President and Dictator, The Good Neighbor Policy: History and Impact, Impeached Presidents of the United States, The Somoza Dynastic Dictatorship (1936–75). [3] Sandino's assassination was followed by the murder of former Sandino supporters by the National Guard. President Sacasa’s administration was severely weakened in 1934–1935. However, upon being sworn in as president in May 1947, Argüello displayed considerable independence, attempting to reduce the power of the National Guard and the control of Somoza and his associates over the economy. He and his family made untold millions of dollars. After returning to Nicaragua, he was unsuccessful as a businessman. Anastasio Somoza García nació el 1 de febrero de 1986, en San Marcos, Nicaragua, como miembro de la clase media-alta de Nicaragua. However, as a result of being educated in the United States, he spoke excellent English and acted as an interpreter during the U.S.-brokered negotiations between the warring parties. They had a Catholic ceremony in Leon Cathedral when they returned to Nicaragua. Less than a month later, Somoza orchestrated another coup, naming one of his wife's uncles, Benjamín Lacayo, as president. Egy nem túl gazdag kávéültetvényes családba született. With the help of the US Marine Corps, which occupied Nicaragua at the time, Somoza became the head of the National Guard. At the urging of the U.S. During that time the country was ruled by a coalition junta of conservatives and Liberals. 1, 1896 – sept. 29, 1956) oli Nicaraguani kindral, president ja diktaator aastatel 1936–1956. At the age of 19, after a family scandal, Somoza Garcia was sent to live with relatives in Philadelphia, where he attended Peirce School of Business Administration (now Peirce College). During World War II, the government confiscated the properties of Nicaragua's small, but economically influential German community and sold them to Somoza and his family at vastly lowered prices. Anastasio Somoza Debayle, byname Tachito Somoza, (born Dec. 5, 1925, León, Nicaragua—died Sept. 17, 1980, Asunción, Paraguay), third member of the Somoza dynasty to be president of Nicaragua (1967–79), who was also commander in chief of the armed forces.. A West Point graduate, Anastasio Somoza rose rapidly to power in the Nicaraguan military establishment during his … Aquarius. [10] Andrew Crawley claims that the Roosevelt statement is a myth created by Somoza himself. He became the foreign secretary and took the title of "General". Anastasio Somoza García (1896-1956) was the President and dictator of Nicaragua from 1936 until his death in 1956. In 1961, leftist rebels in Nicaragua established the National Liberation Front: in 1963 they added “Sandinista” to the name, assuming his name in their struggle against the Somoza regime, by then being led by Luís Somoza Debayle and his brother Anastasio Somoza Debayle, Anastasio Somoza García’s two sons. Margaret Chase Smith. He moved to improve ties to the United States, and after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 he declared war on the Axis powers even before the United States did. He ran one of the most corrupt governments in history. The government seized profitable farms and industries and then sold them to family members at absurdly low rates. Nevertheless, in 1919 they married in Philadelphia in a civil ceremony. Tema administratsioon, olles ajaloos üks korrumpeerunumaid ja teisitimõtlejate jaoks jõhker, toetas sellegipoolest USA, sest seda peeti kommunismivastaseks. La famille a gardé le contrôle du pays presque continuellement jusqu'à la chute d'Anastasio Somoza Debayle en 1979. Somoza named himself director of the Pacific Railroad, linking Managua to the nation's principal port, Corinto, which moved his merchandise and crops for free and maintained his vehicles and agricultural equipment. Check the armies raised by the Christian Brothers filled every important office, Somoza joined the rebellion... Horseback in León Cathedral ruled by a coalition junta of conservatives and Liberals of Bernabé Somoza, popularly known ``... 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