218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). Hannibal besieged the town under the pretext that the Sagunto attacked one of the tribes, which were under Carthage authority. Hasdrubal the Fair took over from Hamilcar (by this time he had an army of 50,000) - he was acclaimed by the army, married a localprincess (Hannibal too was married to a Spanish princess) and called himself strategos autokrator (copying Alexander the Great at his accession); he conquered the rest of Spain and established Qart Hadasht ('new city' = 'Carthage') as his capital in 228bc. Who was to blame for the war?Many historians have blamed Battle of Cannae 216 BC. During the 'Truceless War' (a revolt of mercenaries, 241-237bc), the Roman took advantage of Carthage's weakness to send Sempronius Gracchus to conquer Sardinia and Corsica; the Carthaginians - especially Hamilcar - regarded this as treachery and vowed revenge. Hamilar'. put the blame on Rome. His family were high-ranking nobles, allegedly from the founding of Carthage; his name means 'Servant of Melquart' (the god of Tyre, and the Baal of the Old Testament); his two sons were Hannibal (loved by Baal) and Hasdrubal ('helped by Baal'). Read the following passage from Livy, and write answers Livy blamed Hannibal. Explain why The Second Punic War broke out in Both nations took decisive actions that forced them towards the war. Second Punic War - Battle of Baecula 208 BC. e. Carthaginian conquest of Spain, 237-220bc. what were the results of the second punic war. Rome and Carthage were in competition for trade across and along the Mediterranean Sea The second Punic War lasted 218-201 B.C.for 17 years. Hamilcar set up his base in Gades (Cadiz) in 237bc; sources disagree whether he had the support of the Mighty Ones or not - Polybius says he did, and that his aim was 'to re-establish the Carthaginians' affairs in Iberia'. The Second Punic War : The Causes Of The Second Pinic War 1043 Words | 5 Pages. Causes of the Third Punic War. Hamilcar spent four years fighting the tribes of southern Spain in a a bloody war; he drowned in a battle at the Jucar River, whilst drawing the Oretani away whilst his son Hannibal made his escape by another route. which led soo after to the march on Italy - the question is, would the You must refer However, with all the evidence laid out, Carthage can be declared as the driving force towards the war. hannibal and scipio. Saguntum and the Ebro were the occasion, not the causes, of the war. that of French historian Jerome Carcopino, who suggested (1953) that the River Iber in the 231bc treaty was the Jucar, not the Ebro; and German historian what was the cause of the second punic war. The cause of Second Punic War Bust of Hannibal discovered in Capua. Livy blamed Hannibal. to the questions which follow: Livy, Book 21, Chapter 21 Now that Saguntum had fallen to him, Hannibal retired to his winter quarters at New Carthage. Hannibal in causing the war; •  show knowledge of Briefly describe the Carthaginian conquest of Spain to 226bc. Use the notes above to write answers to questions master; as a result, Hannibal came to control the army in Spain ... These theories would tend to The war was begun by Philip V of Macedonia, who was worried about Roman expansion in Illyria, on his western border. in the end led to the Second Punic War - Polybius said that the conquest Even though the main cause of the second war was the war on Saguntum you must go back all the way to the ending of the First War. Third Punic War Cause. Causes of Punic Wars The cause of this war was mainly the interest of the Roman Republic in expanding southwards by conquering Sicily, a territory that was dominated by Carthaginian Empire. rome. He didn't have proper seige weapons and was defeated. The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean. THE SECOND PUNIC WAR 218-201 BC. The Greek historian Polybius states 3 causes of the Second Punic War. agreeing that Saguntum and crossing the Ebro were the ἀρχάς (archas The treaty between Hannibal and Philip V of Macedon clearly envisaged Rome's continuing existence after a Carthaginian victory. Massinissa & the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) - Duration: 9:38. Essay title: Second Punic War The cause of the Second Punic War is an issue of some great debate. both to this passage, and to your knowledge of Livy as a writer. Hannibal, leading the Barcid Empire, and allied to the Carthagians, crossed the Alps and invaded Italy in a series of highly successful battles. This period is recounted as one of the most historic and memorable conflicts to occur within Roman history. Massinissa & the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) - Duration: 9:38. However, tensions developed as the economic interests of each party began to leave no room for the other. Later Roman writers (e.g. Many secondary historians have written about this - one book notes 34 significant contributions since 1896! Even if the story of Hamilcar making his son at the age of 9 swear never Trade was renewed, and Punic merchants were as familiar a sight in Rome as Italians seem to have been in Carthage. Carthage, located in North Africa, on the shores of what is now known as Tunisia, was a commercial empire that had an incomparable maritime army at the time, which controlled the entire western Mediterranean. Having secured a great trade of district and farther motivated by triumphs. Tradition holds that Phoenician settlers from the Mediterranean port of Tyre (in what is now Lebanon) founded the city-state of Carthage on the northern coast of Africa, just north of modern-day Tunis, around 814 B.C. South of the river Ebro, Sagunto was only sea town (it was Hellenized Iberian city), which did not obeyed to Carthaginians, but it entered into an alliance with Rome. Iber (probably the Ebro, but one historian thinks it was the Jucar) as . The Primary Record. By 265 B.C., Carthage was the wealthiest and most advanced city in the reg… Flashcards. Posted February 27, 2010 at 5:33 PM Causes of the Second Punic War. In Book 21 Chapter 21.1 he declares that after the fall of Saguntum There was no clear victor and the terms set by the Romans were extremely harsh. Why did all the ancient writers - including Polybius - suggest that Hannibal CHAPTER 6. These were the … The ancient sources written by Livy, Polybius Dio Cassius and Appian place a great deal of blame on Hannibal in starting the Second Punic War. Hamilcar Barca wanted revenge on Rome for his father's death and brought an army over the Alps. Hannibal's actions helped precipitate war; •  show knowledge of From here they established a trade network across the Mediterranean. read Mr Clare's article on it. Second Punic War (218-201 BC) The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) the War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean. other historians because their facts were chronologically wrong, but on the academic quibble that The main reasons for the Second or Hannibalic War were the ambition and pride of prominent military generals and a poorly configured political agreement. Second Punic War events rome. But he has confused historians ever since by Causes of the Second Punic War. Even though the main cause of the second war was the war on Saguntum you must go back all the way to the ending of the First War. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. During the 'Truceless War' (a revolt of mercenaries, 241-237bc), the Roman took advantage of Carthage's weakness to send Sempronius Gracchus to conquer Sardinia and Corsica; the Carthaginians - especially Hamilcar - regarded this as treachery and vowed revenge. In his account of the Battle of Zama, Livy goes further and makes Hannibal Dating back to 509BC, two great powers of the Mediterranean - Rome and Carthage - had friendly treaties with each other. So what is going on about the Ebro Treaty? Cause and Effect of the Punic Wars . the boundary of Carthaginian Spain. power of Hannibal. The Third Punic War was entirely avoidable was caused by Rome taking advantage of Carthage while they were weak. The Third Punic War was the last war between Rome and Carthage. Even though the main cause of the second war was the war on Saguntum you must go back all the way to the ending of the First War. Links: It was one of the deadliest human conflicts of ancient times. The causes of the First Punic War were mainly clashes of economic interests. Carthage felt that they were strong and powerful plenty to take on Rome. generals of the second punic war . The flashpoints for the war was Island of Sicily; Carthage was a Phoenician city; The war began just twenty-three short years after the First Punic War had ended. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. reliable you think these sources are. Battle of Baecula. The following websites will help you complete the task: You can read John D Clare's blog-post - The Saguntum Outrage and the Causes of the Second Punic War - here. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. In 219 BC Carthaginian general Hannibal besieged Saguntum, the last Spanish city south of the river Ebro not under Carthaginian control.Saguntum was an ally of Rome, so Hannibal's attack provoked the Second Punic War. worksheet. The problem of Polybius This made him aware of the fact that he was not only army commander for the Carthaginians but (in Roman eyes) the cause of the impending war, so he decided that there was no point in any further delay. Scipio Africanus Conquers Spain 206 BC. 9:38 . competing empires’ - think that the war was the result of a nervous Rome seizing gchoi2022. During the 'Truceless War' (a revolt of mercenaries, 241-237bc), the Roman took advantage of Carthage's weakness to send Sempronius Gracchus to conquer Sardinia and Corsica; the Carthaginians - especially Hamilcar - regarded this as treachery and vowed revenge. The main reasons for the Second or Hannibalic War were the ambition and pride of prominent military generals and a poorly configured political agreement. Frustrated at sea by … He was killed by a Celt assassin as revenge for crucifying the man's In Book 21 Chapter 21.1 he declares that after the fall of Saguntum Hannibal 'received despatches [which] made him aware of the fact that he was ... (in Roman eyes) the cause of the impending war'. Home; Site Info; Location; Links; News ; Guestbook; Forums; Works Cited; Links Punic Wars : Punic War Timeline. where was the second punic war fought. Polybius rightly regarded the latter action as unjustified and the subsequent Carthaginian resentment as a major cause of the Second Punic War. Hamilcar built up a 'war party' in Carthage; which was why, when the Roman delegates offered 'peace or war' in 218bc, the While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. The following web pages will help you complete the task. They were great traders and farmers and soon they had created a great city and they dominated large tracts of the coast of Northern Africa. The Second Punic War-In 226, the Romans pledged to not interfere with anything south of the Ebro River, but after the first punic war, a city named Saguntum, south of the Ebro River, asked Rome for help against the Carthaginians. He founded Carthago Nova (In Punic 'Qart Hadasht' = simply 'New Town', = 'Carthage without the 'New' - i.e. The Second Pinic War: The Causes Of The Second Punic War 938 Words | 4 Pages. Posted February 27, 2010 at 5:34 PM Third Punic War. Hannibal, however, never attained the goal of creating a major division between Rome and its allies. Causes of the Second Punic War The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean.” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. Carthage violated the Peace Treaty set in place at the end of the Second Punic War, and Rome ended up burning them to the ground. Punic Wat. to be a friend to Rome is not true, it is clear that he communicated to Following their defeat in the First Punic War and the loss of territory in Sicily, Carthage built up a new empire in Spain. He won the cognomen 'Barca' (thuderbolt); Polybius admired him and the Roman writer Cato thought him one of the best generals of the time. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage.The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. Match. Involving a wide range of prominent figures, the Second Punic War was due to an ever-growing and rising conflict between Carthage and Rome. Carthage had lost the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and control of Sicily, then again it had been defeated in the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) and so lost its Spanish empire, its fleet, and independence of military action. to 201 B.C. In Book 21 Chapter 21.1 he declares that after the fall of Saguntum Hannibal 'received despatches [which] made him aware of the fact that he was ... (in Roman eyes) the cause of the impending war'. Log in Sign up. The Romans helped, … In both wars, the Carthaginians had also been made to pay Rome massive reparations. The Roman historian Nepos (1st century bc) pedalled a rumour that Hamilcar was homosexual, and in a relationship with Hasdrubal the Fair (which is why he married his daughter to him); Diodorus states that he gained the generalship by cultivating 'the voice of the public', whom he had bought with booty he had plundered in war. Following their defeat in the First Punic War and the loss of territory in Sicily, Carthage built up a new empire in Spain. nervous about Carthaginian expansion in Spain) he made a treaty with the Roman Republic which fixed the River rome's ability to adapt to war and their numbers. In both wars, the Carthaginians had also been made to pay Rome massive reparations. There he received despatches reporting on the activities and decisions in Rome and Carthage. The second Punic war was the result of the growing rivalry between the two great powers that were now struggling for supremacy in the western Mediterranean (Rome and Carthage), with the trigger of the war being the rapid growth of the Carthaginian dominion in Spain, with Carthage building up a great empire in the Spanish peninsula, expecting to raise new armies to invade Italy. Hannibal besieged the town under the pretext that the Sagunto attacked one of the tribes, which were under Carthage authority. Other theories to explain this – e.g. 1-5 on the Start of the War Second Punic War begins. The Roman Senate responded favorably, and ignored the pledge. once again after the First Punic War (264 to 241 BC). These wars were fought on three frontiers. Links: italy, for 17 years, and then carthage, for less than a year. During the Spanish campaigns he built up a permanent, well-trained and disciplined army, which Hasdrubal used to complete the conquest of Spain and Hannibal used to invade Italy. History Time 44,512 views. Second Punic War, also called Second Carthaginian War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. Hamilcar fought a ruthless guerrilla war in Sicily which held off the Romans at Eryx for three years; when the naval defeat at the Aegates Islands (241bc) cut off his supplies, and forced him to negotiate a truce and abandon Sicily, Hamilcar got his second-in-command Gesco to conduct the negotiations so he did not have to admit to failure). The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, an… How far do the ancient sources support this opinion? The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. c. Hamilcar Barca's legacy - 1: the 'Wrath of 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). He had lost his power over Mediterranean Sea; losing Sicily and the compensation imposed on him by Rome greatly affected his economy. The Battle of the Great Plains, also known as the Battle of Campi Magni or the Battle of Bagrades, was a battle fought between Scipio Africanus of Rome and a combined Carthaginian and Numidian army late in the Second Punic War, designed as diversionary tactic by Rome to disrupt Hannibal's attack on Italy. This is demonstrably erroneous - Polybius's account makes it clear that Hannibal only crossed the Ebro AFTER the Roman's declared war.Polybius (Book 3, Chapter 6) It is for this ground that Hannibal chose to assail Saguntum at this clip to arouse a response from the great imperium. The causes of the war were a result of both Roman and Carthaginian actions. Second Punic War Cause. Topics: Carthage, Hannibal, Second Punic War Pages: 5 (1414 words) Published: April 17, 2008. Nevertheless, Carthage recovered from the Second Punic War relatively quickly and coins and trade goods from this period have be… Carthage was in a difficult situation after the defeat of the First Punic War. After a while, the Carthaginians got their house in order and sought to expand their empire again. ” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. The war on Saguntum was seen by … Create. When the Carthaginian government under Hanno refused to pay Hamilcar's army, the mercenaries mutinied; Hamilcar joined with Hanno to lead the Carthaginian forces in the bloody war which suppressed them. 1 Introduction The Second Punic War, also referred to as the Hannibalic War, raged on from 218 B.C. The Third Punic War was entirely avoidable was caused by Rome taking advantage of Carthage while they were weak. how far Hannibal was to blame for the war? essentially as ‘an imperial, economic and cultural death-struggle between two chronologcal order, adding a date where possible: Roman envoys go to Carthage and declare war. Explain the significance of Hamilcar Barca in Carthaginian politics. The fault for the beginning of the Second Punic War can not be placed on a single nation. The Punic Wars were clashes between titans and were arguably the largest wars of the time period as the two participants were some of the most powerful nations of the time. Polybius is someone who gives a very good account of the events that led to the war, blaming the Carthaginians for causing the war. Background; Hannibal takes the initiative (218–213 BC) Hannibal's Overland Journey; First Roman expedition to Iberia After the First Punic War he married Hamilcar's daughter and became a Test. him a lifelong hatred of Rome and a desire for revenge - Polybius called PLAY. connections to ensure that the War Party dominated the Mighty Ones.. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. Causes of the Second Punic War Some historians of the Hannibalian war, when they wish The origin of the 2d Punic war; to point out to us the causes of this contest between Rome and Carthage, allege first the siege of Saguntum by the Carthaginians, and, secondly, their breach of treaty by crossing the river called by the natives the Iber. new capital of Iberia. [30]. 9:38 . Rome didn’t like powerful neighbors, and they wanted total control over the Mediterranean. The campaigns in Spain alarmed the Romans who,in 226bc, signed a treaty with Hasdrubal limiting Carthaginian influence to the Ebro River … which in the end led to the Second Punic War. with Hasdrubal limiting Carthaginian influence to the Ebro River … which This raises a very large question on the part of Polybius. also blamed Hannibal for starting the war by - they said - crossing Ebro and breaking the Treaty of 226bc. [5]. You can read my full reasoning on my blog-post had still been in control? , at being forced to surrender Sicily to the Romans during the First Punic War and also to pay 2200 talents within ten years, and 1000 talents immediately (a talent is 25 kg of silver). Carthaginians have crossed the Alps if the master-of-diplomacy Hasdrubal The treaty between Hannibal and Philip V of Macedon clearly envisaged Rome's continuing existence after a Carthaginian victory. Although this solution worked, it set up an excuse for Hannibal to advance his cause and progress towards the beginning of the Second Punic War. Did Hannibal cause the Second Punic War? upon the Saguntum Outrage as an opportunity to ‘pick a fight’ with the growing Over the next decades, Rome took over control of both Corsica and Sardinia as well, but Carthage was able to establish a new base of influence in … History Time 44,512 views. Hamilcar built up a 'war party' in Carthage, allying himself through the marriage of his daughter to the influential Carthaginian Hasdrubal the Fair; this was why, when the Roman delegates offered 'peace or war' in 218bc, the Assembly supported Hannibal and chose war. The battle of Trebia, 218 B.C., second Punic War, between Carthaginians and Romans (Click image to enlarge)Even before news of the defeat at the Ticinus River had reached Rome, the Senate had ordered the consul Sempronius Longus to bring his army back from Sicily, where it had been preparing for the invasion of Africa, to join Scipio and face Hannibal. occasioned the war by breaking the Ebro Treaty ... when he didn't? Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.) Briefly describe the life and significance of Hasdrubal the Fair. Less well known, are the causes of the Second Punic War. against the Romans. The first cause being the "…indignation of Hamilcar surnamed Barca, the actual father of Hannibal." revenge. italy, for 17 years, and then carthage, for less than a year. Causes of the Second Punic War Some historians of the Hannibalian war, when they wish The origin of the 2d Punic war; to point out to us the causes of this contest between Rome and Carthage, allege first the siege of Saguntum by the Carthaginians, and, secondly, their breach of treaty by crossing the river called by the natives the Iber. present-day Cartagena) as the Hannibal 'received despatches [which] made him aware of the fact that he was ... (in Roman eyes) the cause of the impending war'. THERE WERE CERTAINLY moments of tension after the First Punic War, but relations between Rome and Carthage were not entirely unfriendly. Livy blamed Hannibal. •  give a brief account of the causes of the My two-pennyworth? To set the scene, the First and Second Punic Wars, as well as the period between the wars, are discussed. The primary purpose of the dissertation is to examine the causes of the Second Punic War as given by two prominent ancient historians, Polybius and Livy, the key sources for the modern reader studying the conflict. Clearly, the tensions between Rome and Carthage had not been fully settled. The Second Punic War. The immediate cause of the Second Punic War was the decision by Hannibal — the main Carthaginian general at the time, and one of history’s most revered military commanders — to ignore the treaty between Carthage and Rome that “forbade” Carthage from expanding in Spain beyond the Ebro River. marrying a local princess and warfare he conquered most of Spain. b. Carthaginian conquest of Spain, 237-220bc. OCR Textbook. Because of the peace treaty made between Rome and Carthage after the Second Punic War, Carthage was paying Rome 200 silver talents(1 Roman talent = 32 kilograms) every year for 50 years. South of the river Ebro, Sagunto was only sea town (it was Hellenized Iberian city), which did not obeyed to Carthaginians, but it entered into an alliance with Rome. The primary causes of the three Punic Wars in an easy to understand format. criticises these historians, declaring that there were three causes of the war - the 'wrath of Hamilcar', the Roman annexation of Sardinia, and Carthaginian expansion in Spain. That's the most honest answer I can give. After the defeat in the First Punic War, and especially after the loss of Sardinia, Hamilcar Barca held a hatred against Rome which led Carthage into the Second Punic War. Carthage had lost the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and control of Sicily, then again it had been defeated in the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) and so lost its Spanish empire, its fleet, and independence of military action. The Second Punic War occurred between 218-201 BC. Total War History: The First Punic War (Part 1/4) - … Explain the causes of the Second Punic War a. Sardinia, 237bc. In 226bc, when Roman ambassador arrived (showing the Rome was becoming Causes of the Second Punic War The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean.” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. In 219 BC Carthaginian general Hannibal besieged Saguntum, the last Spanish city south of the river Ebro not under Carthaginian control.Saguntum was an ally of Rome, so Hannibal's attack provoked the Second Punic War. The Roman Senate responded favorably, and ignored the pledge. B. C. 334. Wilhelm Hoffmann, who suggested (1951) that the ultimatum followed the crossing of the river and that Polybius got his chronology wrong – are not generally taken seriously. who won the second punic war. Although Polybius states that the 226bc Treaty said nothing about Spain south of the Ebro, in c.220bc the Romans promised to support Saguntum in its quarrel with Carthage; when Hannibal captured to the town in defiance of their warning, the Roman ambassadors offered the Carthaginian Assembly 'peace or war' ... and the newly-expanded, newly enriched and newly-confident Cathaginians accepted war. [4], In your Appian) revenge. Terms in this set (6) First Punic War Cause. Created by. This showed his skill at using b. Carthaginian conquest of Spain, 237-220bc. Though some of the authors justify his actions to an extent, Hannibal’s invasion of Saguntum is pinpointed as the immediate cause of the Second Punic War. 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