Priest-king statue, Indus Valley Civilization. Established during the twenty-sixth century BCE, it was one of the earliest and largest urban settlements that flourished around the same time as other notable ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Crete. Abstract. Mohenjo Daro was the centre of a powerful ancient civilisation and one of the world’s earliest cities. It lies on the flat alluvial plain of the Indus, about 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Sukkur. Although Mohenjo-Daro's Envoy bonuses grant bonus Culture, its unique Suzerain bonus gives a civilization extra Housing.It is valuable to civilizations that have incentives to settle on coastal tiles, but it does not affect the Maya, whose cities do not receive benefits from being adjacent to water. Standardized weights, measures, and scales found in Mohenjo-Daro are evidence that the citizens had an organized system of trade. Some buildings had two stories. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Indus still flows east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed on the western side is now dry. The name Mohenjo-daro is reputed to signify “the mound of the dead.” The archaeological importance of the site was first recognized in 1922, one year after the discovery of Harappa. [31] Gregory Possehl was the first to theorize that the floods were caused by overuse and expansion upon the land, and that the mud flood was not the reason the site was abandoned. It has great importance. Sir Mortimer Wheeler was especially fascinated with this artifact, which he believed to be at least 4,500 years old. Z. Scientists are still working to find facts about the lost city. [19], The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests a high level of social organization. In the 1980s, German and Italian survey groups led by Michael Jansen and Maurizio Tosi used less invasive archeological techniques, such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, and localized probing, to gather further information about Mohenjo-daro. Apart from this settlement, Harappa, Lothal, Kali… It is on display in the National Museum, Karachi, Pakistan. In 2011, responsibility for the preservation of the site was transferred to the government of Sindh. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. "[43] The archaeologist Gregory Possehl said of the statuette, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it". Archaeologists first visited the Mohenjo Daro site in 1911. That evidence has led to speculation that Harappa may have succeeded—or at least outlasted—Mohenjo-daro. [29], The city also had large platforms perhaps intended as defense against flooding. It was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1927 CE. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. Archaeologists confirm the presence of a great city before about 4000 thousand years. Web. [32], Numerous objects found in excavation include seated and standing figures, copper and stone tools, carved seals, balance-scales and weights, gold and jasper jewellery, and children's toys. Some houses, presumably those of more prestigious inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (known as a hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer noted the complete lack of evidence for grain at the "granary", which, he argued, might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. 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