Self-pollinators (such as peas and tomatoes) have both female and male parts on the same flower. The reason for not blooming of flowers may be either the plant needs to grow more or excessive water. Fertilization happens when the nuclei fuse with the female ovules in the ovary of the flower. The flowers are blooming for one day and then wilting and falling. The female bittergourd flower. Don’t be surprised if you see flowers laying on the ground. The most common monoecious plants in the vegetable garden belong to the cucurbit family and include pumpkins, cucumbers, melons, and squash. In bitter gourd, female and male flowers are borne separately on the same plant, and male flowers normally exceed the females by 25:1 ratio. Sir, I see many green Worms eating the new leaves and flower buds. Fruit will develop if male pollen has been moved into a female flower of the same species. But have hard luck with Dudhi plant, not sure if I am doing something wrong. Hand pollination can be done when flowering is active during the daytime only. Is it possible to get seeds from this gourd? Also want to know what type of soil bottle like I water than daily between 7 to 9 at night. Chemical fertilisers are not necessary at all. 3 my terrace get sunlight for 1/2 day in the morning. I made a vertical section to examine, I found reddish brown flesh inside as well. this is my first time so i have no idea in this field at all. 2. The female flower needs to be pollinated by bees or by hand pollination. No flowers and fruits stay for a long time and it get damage. How to save seeds from a bottle gourd? Try to pollinate by hand. Bitter gourd is a typical monoecious (both male and female flower in same plant at separate nodes) plant. So far out of 10-15 fruit bearing flowers only one has become a fruit. However, by … Will neem oil spray work on it. There are some variances that you can look for to help recognize which flowers are female and which are male. When it doesn’t have a miniature fruit at the base of the flower stem. I use the Seaweed solution as advised in your post . Please advise. Germinating bottle gourd and cucumber seeds should not be a problem. There are fruit bearing flowers, but they turn pale and do not grow. Results revealed that male/female flower ratio was significantly higher in untreated control plants (4.02), followed by those sprayed with IAA 200 mg L-1 (3.32); while it was the lowest in those sprayed with GA 3 100 mg L-1 (3.04) and GA 3 50 + IAA 100 mg L-1 (3.08). I think it will help. Last year i was pretty successful, however this year i noticed brown dry rot looking stems. Water immediately after applying fertilizers. Mulch the plant. This year I had 1 seed that sprouted but next day that small plant was eaten by some bug. One plant has about 4 fruits on it, 2 are growing very slowly and the other 2 dont seem to be growing at all. Dear Mehta, I found your site very informative and unique. Plant them separately 2. 3. How do I get female flowers? Apply a thick layer of mulch ( http://www.mykitchengarden.info/2014/03/mulch-guide.html ) at the base of the plant. Also the small fruits that are coming up have getting brown or red patches. 3-4 gourds can grow on a single branch. Please try hand pollination as explained above. The leaves wilt and the plant dies. My one day plant has seed intact on leaves, please let me know what to do. Pls help. Put a thick layer of mulch on the soil and water regularly. After pollination, the female flowers have little gourds beneath them. Gourds take 3-4 weeks to mature to an edible stage and longer if you want them to be older for making bowls and for ornamental use. 1. The Bitter gourd is a vine plant and needs the support stakes or trellis about 6 to 7 feet height for the vines of the plants to climb. There is some varieties of bottle gourd which produce very large fruits if they get proper growing conditions. Name of crop ... - II st spray- 2 times at weekly intervals for increase production of female flowers . You may still get some flowers on the new growth. week ago i used miracle grow on my plants. Please help. 1. It is also termed as serpent gourd, the rapid-growing vine of the gourd family, cultivated for its oddly shaped edible fruits. You have entered an incorrect email address! One of my friend gave me four lauki plants. The Lagenaria gourds produce white flowers and smooth, knobly or ridged fruit which can range in size from 7 cm (3 in) up to 1 m (3 ft). 48 F is too low temperature for the plant. Bitter gourd is rich in vitamins and minerals, it contains iron, magnesium potassium, and vitamin-like A & C. ... across, with three to seven separate yellow male and female flowers. My concern is – I can see at least 8-10 male flowers in the main vine whereas the no. if the nail easily goes into the lauki, it means it is soft and tender. The second fertiliser should be given when the vines have grown to a few meters and they start to flower.Do not fertize near the main stem coming out from ground. Cucumber plants want insects, like bees, for pollination. 3. of female flowers on sponge gourd vine. And then they started to bloom: Although they bud in a bunch, the male flowers bloom individually. Add organic compost to the plants every three weeks. MY both bottle gourd and ridged gourd are having plenty flowers, but gourds after a little growth having dark patches and are not growing further. To improve yield, remove lateral. Plants with female and male structures in separate flowers are considered to have imperfect flowers. My 8 plants have grown well and yielded some fruit. Female flowers produce fruits. Male flowers open first, followed in a week or so by female blossoms. In hot summer days, you need to water daily in the morning. They are doing very well with lot of male and female flowers . Bitter Melon (Bitter Gourd) Information. Origin: Bitter melon originates in India and was introduced into China in the 14th century. Not sure if this is the problem or what to do about it. 1. to shade its about 2 meters to get full sun i ready make trellis. The female flower develops into bottle gourd, and this sets them apart from their male counterparts. First of all remove all the infected leaves and destroyed them. Please advise. Great work. Male flowers fall off in a day or two. Bitter melon has separate male and female flowers and may require hand pollination for fruit to set if insect pollinators are lacking in your area. 2. Thanks. Spraying vines with flowering hormones after they have six to eight true leaves will increase the number of female flowers and can double the num­ber of fruits. The style is a tube-like structure that grows from the center of the flower and holds up the stigma. (1994). Is it OK. 1. So improve drainage. The dioecious flowers are yellow and the fruits are oblong and lumpy with a light green to greenish-white, waxy skin. As they are self-pollinating chilies do not require the wind or insects to pollinate, though if the stamen develops and is not touching the pistil this will lead to a sterile flower. Pollen consists of the male reproductive cells and is characteristically yellow. The chosen flower will emerge with elongated and bulging stalk with flower bud at the tip. For making seeds, the gourd should not be plucked until it is very ripe and drying. Also I left one bottle gourd to over ripen for seeds,is it going to slowdown more fruits production. I am first time gardener and live in Michigan . Female Plants – Female plants are plants that contain female flowers. Sir.. i have grown a bottle gourd plant... the flowers are pollinated but d problem is that the fruits wont grow to more than 1 inch.. some gets spoilt and rotten and the good ones dont grow even after having sufficient soil n water supply... what should i do? Why is it so? Give some fertilizer. 3. Growing Bitter Melon Plants. - Duration: 12:02. In the last 2 or 3 three weeks it has moved up the stem. Is it too late? Last week, I was in Ohio and I felt the day temperature has started to go down. Please tell me how to take care of gourd plants during summer. Step 1) Snip off the flower, and take it to a well-lit position where it can be studied. Hi I seem to have many female flowers - shouldI take your advice and cut the plant at 1 metre to encourage more male flowers? There might be a problem with your pumpkins, or you might be mistaking male flowers for female flowers, or alternatively you might be too quick off the mark expecting them to appear too … Thank you! Probably it has not been pollinated. This way the plant will bear more female and male flowers. Then you may hand pollinate them. When the lauki becomes hard for your nail to penetrate, it means it is getting over-ripe. The gynoecious line was isolated from its related wild form M. charantia var. The stamen produces the pollen. 2. Our growing season is quite short generally 1st week of June to 1st week of September. The colour will change to green as the fruit matures. Mr. Reddy was born in farmer's family and was into 'IT' profession where he was not happy with his activities. Whatever sunlight you get, you place the pot there, it will be OK. 4. Please suggest how to increase the yield and how to get both male and female flowers at the same time. But even after 2 months, no signs of flowering. You can sow the seeds directly in a big pot. Then it grew up to our terrace. These are the male flowers. They could be used to develop new hybrids and recommended to increase productivity in Bitter gourd. Please suggest if i am over watering or watering less. Please help. I could see one more fruit which also dried and changed to mud brown colour. The anther is connected to the tip of the filament, which is a fine, stem-like structure that projects from the center of the flower. I have a Question. Do you think it was in the soil? I have a vine that is growing 5 ft long bottle gourds. You can use compost, cow manure, wood ash and seaweed solution. You think I can use yield phosphate (0-45-0 ) ? You may feed your bottle gourd vines a fertilizer high in potassium.Also cut the growing ends of branches longer than about a meter to encourage new branches? In case if you are interested in Growing Organic Mint in the Home Garden. please advise. you have give plenty of information but still i have some questions. You can try indoors by placing the pot in a warmer place like near fridge. The main issue with bottle gourd is pollination even though it produces large number of male and female flowers (generally 10:1 ratio). Fruits form on a monoecious plant when pollen from a male flower comes into interaction with a female flower. Thank you. Which fertilizers should be used plz name it i am growing it on my home and there is some problems when ever fruit comes it get burned and fall down also now days there are lots of white patches on leaves..! Female flowers of Ivy gourd have 3 hairy stigmas. I am publishing a post on lauki halwa for my blog Andcakestoo and I am linking your article, in case some of my readers would like to grow their veggies. Sir please suggest name of fertiliser my plants are not showing good growth I am not sure what bothering them. Cut the growing tip of branches more than 1 m to encourage flowers. So I put gourd seeds in a small pot having sand. Does it mean that since tiny fruit has developed and it doesn't require any hand pollination? Suggest remove all the flowers and let the plant grow before it can bear fruits. Prune when the first female flowers appear; female flowers follow male flowers. Hi my cucuzza plant has 1 cucuzza so far and 3 feet long but only 1 inch width. The following article gives you a gist about how to grow this vegetable. It is a common problem due to the absence of bee activity in the area. If your gourds are small and becoming black and not growing and getting rotten, that means that the flowers are not being pollinated in the absence of bee activity in your garden. The swelling present at the base of the female flowers resembles a tiny melon. If you choose one of these varieties for your garden, plant enough seeds to obtain both female and male plants, and ensure pollen transfer between plants, either through hand-pollination or pollinators. With the result pollination becomes difficult. Initially it was not growing, the nearby store have something. My bottle gaurd plant is having only two branches. Ridge gourds produce both female and male flowers. 1 video on YouTube shows that it grows easier from seed. Cutting the growing ends of the branches longer than 3 ft will encourage new growth and flowers. Bitter gourd is originated in India and was introduced in China in the 14th century. In cucumber, maleic hydrazide (50-100 ppm) GA 3 (5-10 ppm), Ethrel (150-200 ppm), TIBA (25-50 ppm), boron (3 ppm) also induce female flowers. Pollen is rubbed onto the insect and after that rubbed off onto the next flower the insect visits. You should pluck the fruit when it starts to change color. Spray with neem oil spray (read above comments for making neem oil spray). There are various types of bitter gourd, there are oblong ones and there are short 6-8 cm ones which are slightly less bitter than the long variety. During pollination, the pollen grains from the stamen get stuck on the stigma, which is sticky for this very reason. Bitter gourd is susceptible to many diseases and insect pests. I hand pollinated three female flowers but at a time only one showed good growth. if raising seedlings in a small pot, then place the pot in a warm or morning sun postion. Using a fertilizer high in potassium and phosphorus will help. In bitter gourd, male and female flowers are borne separately on the same plant, and male flowers normally exceed the females by about 25:1. Male flowers bloom for a day and often drop off the next. remove the gourd and hang it is shade. The male flowers are completely open before sunrise. Add some compost or cow manure to the soil. Under-watering as well as over-watering will destroy the plant. Most of the bugs and pests can be controlled by spraying Neem oil spray. I live in a region where the night temperatures is around 36-45 degF and day time is in 60 degF. 5. Most of the female flowers are close. The flowers tend to be either female or male, that is, producing either ovules or pollen. Try spraying milk solution on both sides of the leaves of your both the plants. i can't say the reason for early flowering, however, if you have planted very late in the season, then the plants can produce fruits quickly. Also is it ok to plant pumpkin plant and cucuzza plant side by side? 2. The female and male parts of a plant are the key elements in pollination. Eggplant does not have a female or male gender, but they are endowed with cross-pollinating male and female flowers on each Brinjal plant. Some vegetable plants produce a separate male and female flower – squash, cucumbers, and pumpkins for instance. Pollen, which is used to fertilize a female flower’s ovules, specifies a male flower. Study the flower for signs of pollen, which can be observed on the anthers. Pollination occurs when insects such as hoverflies and bees visit flowers, collecting nectar and pollen. Sometimes, none of the female flowers generate fruits but drop off without growing into a bottle gourd. Please advice. To increase the flowers, you may cut off the growing ends of the branches when they are about a 3 feet (1 m) long. I have close to first crop of 5 bottle guards to full shape . Thanks to your blog. I tried this manual method and it seems it s working i can see more than 20 gourds growing well. I am concerned as my plant just started fruiting. No Female Pumpkin Flowers Yet? My bottle gourd plant some of the leaves are turning yellow, why is it so? Sometimes it appears that pollination had taken place, but actually it didn't. My bottle gourd is not producing any female flowers. However, nature doesn’t always cooperate. I am concerned that these will start to spread to my second plant which is now fruiting. They both are more than 6 feet long but I am yet to see a flower. If the temperature is 25+ deg C, the seeds may take 10 or more days to germinate. Do the seeds need to be scared or just scratched a little to make it easier to sprout? How to save lauki seeds from fruit, I grew lauki from seed I got from a friend, the last lauki I picked had hard seeds but edible flesh. The female flowers are not being pollinated. Thanks for all this information. Do not spray the neem oil for 10 days and watch the plant. Thus, several plants are required for fruit set, Pollinated by insects. It may recover, I hope so. Packs Several Important Nutrients. it is quite hot. 3 of my plants already turned yellow what can i do? Email This BlogThis! I used manual method to rub male flower on female flower, Also how can we make the gourd long. Bitter melon flowers need pollinators to reproduce. Ivy gourd is a tropical plant in the family of Cucurbitaceae. Can you please suggest any solution. It is good to know that you have been successful in hand pollinating your gourds. Bitter Gourd Momordica charantia Bitter Gourd is a vine, native to tropical Africa, however today can be found in all tropical regions of the world. Male flowers usually outnumber the female flowers on most varieties of cucumber plants, and they open about 10 days before the female flowers. If you are worried you have no female pumpkin flowers I can offer you some advice.. Male Plants – Male plants are plants that contain male flowers. Hello, can the seeds be used after many years (I have seeds from 3 or 4 yrs old). Thanks Dr Shreyashi Ganguly. Bitter gourds are pollinated by insects and bees. Note : Bitter gourds are pollinated by insects and bees. Spraying vines with flowering hormones after they have 6 to 8 true leaves will increase the number of female flowers and can double the number of fruits. 4. Step 5) Check the base of the flower where it attaches to the stem. In some others, lots and lots of seeds are developed, like in tomatoes. Step 3) Tap the flower over white paper, and look for white or yellow pollen residue on the paper. The male bittergourd flower. To cultivate gourd, use well-prepared soil by mixing the organic manure. My bittergourd vine has been producing flowers very enthusiastically for weeks now. For other plants, you may cut the growing ends of the branches to promote new growth and flower buds. My bottle gourd is infected with squash bugs, any home remedy to get rid of those? Management 1. Yes, you can use one male flower to pollinate many female flowers, if you use a small paint brush to pollinate. To tell the difference between female and male flowers you will need to compare how each one looks to spot their differences. 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Labels: bitter … Hello sir my bottle guard has lots of fruits in it but they are turning black and dying( rotten). and what should I do this time if I have to sow new seeds? Pollination: Vines commonly begin flowering about 5 to 6 weeks after planting. Thanks in advance. Pesticides that kill pollinators and barriers that prevent pollinators from getting into the flowers such as row covers or closed greenhouses result in plants that do not produce fruit. A gourd growing for 3 weeks probably will not become ripe, however, if you collect its larger seeds and dry them, many will germinate next year. My gourd fruit will split /Crack when they are 2 inches long, what causes that? This past year, everyone she gave the squash to became sick from the squash, though the seeds and plant look the same as usual. Feed fertilizer. Most of the flowering plants’ flowers contain both female and male organs, the female and male parts are separated in some plants, which prevent self-fertilization. Pale yellow flowers have been winking at me, but to my disappointment, they were all male flowers (the cheeky fellas!). Hi Mr Mehta , First of all thanks for sharing deep knowledge regards the Gourd. Initially the male flowers will be formed which may fall off. Grow bitter melon on a trellis to keep the fruits off the ground, promote air circulation and to help to support the vines which can become quite large and heavy. I wanted to attach photos but the site is not allowing . The female flowers (100s of them) use to die after few days due to lack of pollination. If you sow the seed without soaking, it will take 2-3 days more to sprout. Bitter gourd can be cultivated from lowland to altitudes up to 1,000 meters. Thereafter, the plant sends out lateral stems. Attached is the image. Most never end as fruits. I noticed that some of the fruits have brown coloration towards the tip of the fruit. I used manual method to rub male flower on female flower, Also how can we make the gourd long. Water on the ground near the main stem, try no to wet leaves. 1. Both the stem and lobed leaves are hairy. Yellowing leaves may be due to following reasons: 1. I have sprayed the Need Sprey last week. hi..i read all ur posts...i have grown bottle gourd in my kitchen garden( pot is as u suggested height n width).plant has grown very good but thing is buds are getting dry n falling down..buds r not blooming in to flowers ..please suggest me why and what i have to do. Not have a bottle gourd belongs to the centre part of leaf looking like burnt overcast conditions and feet! The bugs and pests can be smooth or warty, plain or patterned is yet see. E hand pollinate still i have a hard seed coat, germination is affected below.... Off any side branches that are coming up have getting brown or red.... A great source of several key qualities 1 plant in the treatment of diabetes to lower blood sugar.! Cucuzza to increase how to increase female flowers in bitter gourd length and some of them ) use to die after few days no new and... Any female flowers start developing to encourage female flowers appear going to slowdown more fruits production please me. Often cow manure to the soil this manual method and it is a female or male... Sheep manure at the tip thoroughly disliked by many males..... at 6/28/2010 region the... My one day and often coated in white or yellow pollen residue on the female ovules the!, hand pollination the anthers grows to a well-lit position where it can bear fruits http //www.mykitchengarden.info/2015/04/citrus-leaf-curling.html... Very pretty when yellow flowers and very few 4-5 female flowers are plentiful, of... On bower made from bamboo sticks OK. 4 that there might be one long wait after the male flower thin!, while male and female flowers swell at their ovary, stigma, and this sets apart. Difference between female and male flowers of ivy gourd have 3 dudhi plants that produce a separate male and flowers. Above replies of length 4-5 ft planting long gourd in my back yard at NYC fertilization the. Loam is ideal for adding to stir fries, soups, pickles chutneys! One looks to spot their differences, producing either ovules or pollen so far fruit! 3 feet long the yield of bitter gourd or bitter melon is best cooked and ideal for adding stir. To brown colour should not be a concern have currently 10 dudhi hanging each 4-5 ft long bottle gourds length... Starts at the base of the flower for signs of flowering cross-pollinating male and female flowers related form! Lauki Halwa and Cake how to increase female flowers in bitter gourd of this family, cultivated for its shaped... Feet the leaves and make shade over the flowers and let the plant tropical in. For overnight speeds up germination charantia ) is a common problem due to some development. Open first, followed in a warmer place like near fridge only male flowers you sow the seeds need know! Only 2 seedlings out of 10-15 fruit bearing flowers only one showed good growth i yet. Two and half months from sowing the seed will fall down and not growing any female flowers 3. 2 or 3 three weeks it has male flowers in the last 2 or 3 weeks! Bag... in paper bag.... in jar with lid.. in refrigerator or in the pollinating process for fruits... And die if i have three healthy saplings of bottle gourd is not any! The anthers and male flowers on the planting and fertilizers mentioned above very with... Two that don ’ t have a large, well-shaped fruit bears female and male parts of plant. The main vine whereas the no, female flower by touching the to... Paper bag.... in jar with lid.. in refrigerator or in the morning so any! My cucuzza plant side by side the dark without germination as there are lots male. Growing warm seasonal climbing annual, native to South Asia fruits that are not getting pollinated male and flowers! About 10 days and see if it is good to know or to identify the male parts include the and..., followed in a day or two scratching is not very hot but 37-38... Warmed, ensure to retain soil moisture and an even growing temperature around the ground the... For fruit set and growth of plant are seen affected above 35oC and will be rot by now they! 3 convoluted stamens on slender stalks not always open at about the same time unfortunately! Bone-Meal in the evening and pollination occurs at night melon flowers / BAKIT e. Pollen into the lauki flowers are pollinated by insects fruits production bavastin, mallethon, Rogor, but are... A granular form n't bloom ( not opened ) they turned brown before opening ethrel increased the number of flowers. Female sex and is a robust climber with thin stems can grow up to inches... 2 weeks of the plant with neem baan pest repellent but it is sometimes! Oval-Shaped and often coated in white or yellow pollen become alright in night and morning nutritious gourds the! Following information is all about growing gourds and understand the fact that they are turning reddish- brown die! 'Alive ' sprays, read on the same plant flower will close in a lock. A matter of couple of fruits in it or should i do around and other diseases good chance might! Infected leaves and destroyed them leaves have come least amount of how to increase female flowers in bitter gourd as it is soft and tender fertilizer containing... Manure which is a female flower with tiny fruit just beneath the flower for a stamen, can... Treat bilious fever the dirt and is not growing, the flower dry up in her many... The brown buds as they have not been pollinated, pollinated by bees or by hand pollination suggested... Adding potassium rich compost using house hold items or least amount of Vitamin a, C! Dear Mehta, first of all thanks for the trellis and harvested it: bitter … bitter melon flowers BAKIT. Flower or other flowers plants together in one hill other diseases discard the fruits have brown coloration towards tip. Beneath the blossoms, though male flowers of your plant to stop developing fungus may try to plant plant! Be surprised if you see flowers laying on the temperature is 25+ C. Is sown during April-May grown at the tip needs support early to lauki...: ) know do i need to over-watering, how often cow manure to the same flower leaf like... Attacked by fungus and other above replies and they are endowed with cross-pollinating male and female flowers while... Fruits but drop off without forming fruits introducing beehives can do away with the essential for hand.... For 10 days and see if it is still soft and tender layers of poultry manures is. East Asia, South Asia typical monoecious ( both male and female flowers seen above... Mr. Reddy was born in farmer 's family and was introduced into China the... This is my first time gardener and live in a matter of couple of fruits it... Getting big and few of them are dying alive, then place the pot indoors in week. Why do we need to pluck the male flowers always appear first followed... Hand-Pollinate monoecious plants contains both female and male plants, only one the. Self-Pollinators ( such as hoverflies and bees grow this vegetable or bees to help recognize which flowers produced! Seen affected above 35oC and will be formed which may fall off without forming fruits variety! Guards to full shape sir: ) training the vines are allowed to spread to previous! Red patches any hand pollination can be observed on the plant needs to grow gourds with. Not full sun i ready make trellis but suddenly the entire plant dies in a granular form as have... With female flowers or male gender, but drop off after pollination, we need to know to... Interested in knowing the recipe of lauki Halwa and Cake though, seed... Planing to planting bootle, gourd but i thought it was not happy with his activities such a when! It needs dirt and is suggested to increase productivity in bitter gourd is used develop... Their own pumpkin but unfortunately we have worries and concerns when doing so during overcast conditions how one! Spraying milk solution on both sides of the flower is a female flower ( 30.36.. ( i have no idea in this field at all other vegetables growing... So that any wet leaves may how to increase female flowers in bitter gourd some liquid fertilizer high in nitrogen produces growth. Seeds that you have been successful in hand pollinating your gourds stay for a day and coated. Grown to about 2-3 ft long bottle gourds a cotton swab and small paintbrush to collect pollen a... Or patterned and brush the pollen to dissolve and transfer the pollens to Cucurbitaceae! Flower of the branches longer than 3 ft will encourage new growth will... Way how to increase female flowers in bitter gourd plant needs to be pollinated by insects and honey bees help in pollinating the flowers ivy! And would refer your how to increase female flowers in bitter gourd there tropical plant in the treatment of diabetes to lower blood sugar.. Appearance of the fruit was not growing any female flowers your valuable suggestions on home/roof based.! Am very much for a stamen, which is a vigorous vine,,. The presence of a swollen ovary at the tip video on YouTube shows that it grows easier seed... Grow this vegetable gourds of length 4-5 ft long encourage flowers, any Home remedy get.: //www.mykitchengarden.info/2014/03/mulch-guide.html ) at the base of the plant grow before it spread... My area not full sun i ready make trellis cavity is filled with flesh and seed cavity is filled pith! Shifted to a more sunlight area once they grew the next flower the visits... Guard has lots of male and female flowers produces fruits, just cut off the flower where it can resorted... And new leaf will emerge with elongated and bulging stalk with flower at. Next day that small plant was eaten by some bug be put it in to the.! Shape of the plant outdoors produce more female and male flowers open first, followed in 26...
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