Name derivation: Pinus – the Latin name; radiata – radiating (perhaps relating to the whorls of cones about the branches). Its leaves are relatively short (8-15 cm long) and usually borne in groups … Radiata pine is a conifer or cone bearer. It has been introduced as a timber tree in vast areas of New Zealand (where it is the most common tree), Australia, Chile, SW Europe and South Africa (Little 1980, Kral 1993, Lavery & Read in Richardson 1998). Descriptions of five new species of the genus Pinus discovered by Dr. Coulter in California. Griffin, James R., and William B. Critchfield. Hardy to Zone 8 (cold hardiness limit between -12.1°C and -6.7°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001). Thus the Blackwood or Cape Town tree ranks as the tallest known specimen. Farjon and Styles (1997) provide a detailed account of var. This species is very extensively planted in New Zealand and of the many extraordinary specimens there, the thickest is 321 cm dbh and the tallest is 51.8 m tall (New Zealand Tree Register, accessed 2020.10.24). Kauffmann, Michael. Stems in closed-canopy forest showning retention of many years of cone production; Point Lobos [C.J. Forest trees of the Pacific slope. Millar, C.I. Carder (1995) states that in its native range in California, the species seldom reaches 40 m in height. 1979. Critchfield, William B., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1966. 1.5 cm, resinous. Unpublished report, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Redding, CA. Cover photos: Left: High pruning of radiata pine, New Zealand (P. Wilks) Centre: A combination of radiata pine plantations, other introduced trees, native areas and farmingSustainable management of Pinus radiata plantations by C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) is similar to many other pine species that have become naturalised in Australia, including slash pine (Pinus elliottii), Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea), cluster pine (Pinus pinaster) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis). Earle, 2014.01.18]. Pinus radiata Pine Monterey Pine Description: An attractive, fast growing tree with deeply fissured, dark brown bark and a dense head of branches. There is also an old record of a New Zealand tree 64 m tall (Burstall and Sale 1984), but no supporting data was provided, the tree has not been mentioned by any other source, and most old height measurements are overestimates due to error-prone measurement techniques. The Mexican island populations of Pinus radiata: an international expedition and ongoing collaboration for genetic conservation, in Forest Genetic Resources No. Roy, Douglass F. 1966. The species name reflects how . Washington, DC. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science 2(2):263-283. bianta 基変種 Pinus radiata var. Its bark is dark brown with deep ridges. See also Thompson et al. と混生する。, 本種は上層木にもなり、下層木にもなることがあることから、中程度の耐陰性を持つとの評価である[23]。耐陰性は樹齢とともに変化し、稚樹の時は高いが生長するにつれて低くなっていくという[21]。, 本種にはヤドリギの一種 Arceuthobium occidentale が寄生することがある。樹齢は関係無いようであるが、Ano Nuevoでは見られないという[24]。, 火災が無い場合は本種よりも高く成長し、より長寿な植物、たとえばベイマツ (Pseudotsuga menzeisii、ダグラス・ファーとも)が優勢になると見られている。カリフォルニアにおいては本種の同齢林[注釈 3]が見られることが多いが、これは火災跡地に再生してきたことを示している。, ニュージーランドにおける外来針葉樹の野生化問題では高木であるこれらの樹種が、低木や草本を被圧して悪影響をもたらすことが懸念されている。, 何種類もの昆虫がマツの色々な部位を餌として利用している。葉を食べるものは44属56種に上るという[25]。ゾウムシやキクイムシの仲間は形成層を食べるために若い個体では枯死に結びつくことがある。, ユーラシア地域を原産とするノクチリオキバチ (Sirex noctilio) は産卵時に卵と共にある種の菌類をマツに注入する。幼虫はマツの材だけでなく菌類も同時に食べて育つ。原産地のマツはこの菌類に抵抗性があるが、アメリカ大陸原産の本種は感受性が高く寄生されると、導水障害を起こして枯れてしまうことも多い。キバチはオセアニアや南米などにも侵入し、特にオーストラリアの植林地では1950年代の一時期壊滅的な被害を出したところもある[26]。キバチは北米大陸にも侵入が確認されており、本種以外にも抵抗力のないマツが多いアメリカではその拡大が危惧されている[27]。, ある種の鳥類と小型哺乳類の中には本種の種子に大きく依存して生活しているものも知られている。アメリカカケス (Aphelocoma californica)、ステラーカケス (Cyanocitta stelleri)などは特に顕著である。小型哺乳類で大事なのはシカシロアシネズミ (Peromyscus maniculatus)、シマリス類やジリス類 (ground squirrels)などが挙げられている[28]。, グアダルーペ島においては野生化したヤギが実生や苗木を食べてしまうので、更新が進まずに絶滅寸前まで個体数が減少している。ヤギの駆除は2005年に完了したものの、成木の個体数が回復するには長い年月がかかるとみられている。, 牧畜の盛んなニュージーランドでは本種の人工林内に家畜を放牧することもよく研究されている。林内放牧、 (Forest Farming、林間放牧) と呼ばれるアグロフォレストリーの一種である[29]。, 他のマツ同様、根と菌類が共生して出来た菌根を形成し、相互に有益な関係を築いている。本種と菌根を形成する菌類は7種類とも[30]、16種類以上[15]とも言われている。いくつかある菌根菌の中でも特にショウロ (Rhizopogon rubescens)とホンショウロ (R. luteolus)はマツの伸長成長、マツへの栄養分供給能力において最も優れているという[30]。, 一方でマツに害を与える菌も多い。マツ類、トウヒ類、モミ類など各種針葉樹を侵し、欧米で大きな問題になっているマツノネクチタケ (Heterobasidion annosum) による被害は本種でも発生している。マツノネクチタケと並ぶ病原菌であるナラタケ類 (Armillaria spp. were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. The three remaining native stands of var. 1985. B. Linhart. Other common names Monterey pine radiata pine Synonyms Pinus insignis Family Pinaceae Genus Pinus can be shrubs or large, evergreen trees, some species with attractive bark, developing an irregular outline with age and bearing long needle-like leaves in bundles of 2, 3 or 5; conspicuous cones may fall or remain on the tree for years Its cones are serotinous, i.e. Trans. Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) is similar to many other pine species that have become naturalised in Australia, including slash pine (Pinus elliottii), Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea), cluster pine (Pinus pinaster) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis). This is the most common pine in the southern hemisphere, where no pines are native (except that Pinus merkusii barely crosses the Line in Sumatra). 1968. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Diseases of Monterey pine in native stands of California and in plantations of western North America. 小学館. Vogl, Richard J., Wayne P. Armstrong, Keith L. White, and Kenneth L. Cole. 1982. 1968. Trees 15-30(-64) m tall, 30-90(-280) cm in diameter, contorted to straight; crown broadly conic, becoming rounded to flattened, very shallow (10-20% of height) in closed stands. Age and origin of the Monterey endemic area. The cones may also burst open in hot weather (Little 1980). In situ genetic conservation of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don):Information and recommendations. Soil temperature and drought effects on growth of Monterey pine. Really exceptional specimens occur in the southern hemisphere. Madroño 29(3):127-147. Small stand on coastal bluff at Point Lobos State Park, California [C.J. radiata について産地別に枝、針葉や球果を多数集めたところ、Cambria の個体群は変種とまではいかないものの他の2つの生息地と違う傾向が見られた。オーストラリアの研究ではこれらの形態・表現型的な違いに加えて遅い成長率、季節ごとの成長に違いが見出されており、おそらく遺伝子的に他の個体群と異なるとされている[2]。近年の研究では各生息地間に僅かな遺伝子的な差異が認められた。そのほとんどは生息地に固有のものだという[3]。, 本種とPinus attenuata やビショップマツ (Pinus muricata) との間で大きく遺伝子移入があるという証拠はないが、雑種の出現は地域的にしか見られない[2]。, 学名Pinus radiata の種小名 radiata は英語のradial(放射状) に由来し、毬果の鱗片の特徴に基づいて名付けられた。英名として一般的な Montrey Pine は本種が広く分布するカリフォルニア州の半島の名前に由来する。他の名前としてはスペイン語風の pino insignis や 種小名 radiata からRadiata pineと呼ばれることも多い。種小名由来の名称は世界的によく使われる。, 日本でもMonterey Pineを直訳したモントレーマツが標準和名として与えられているが、種小名に由来するラジアタマツ、ラジアータマツ、ラジアータパインなどと呼ばれることも多い。ラディアタと表記されることもある。木材の輸入先として大きなニュージーランドやチリを頭に付けたニュージーランドマツやチリーマツという表記も木材・建築業界など、一部で使われているようである[4]。, 基変種、変種ともに自生地は非常に限られている。 基変種はアメリカ合衆国西部カリフォルニア州セントラルコースト (Central coast) の互いに隔絶した3地点、サンマテオ郡 (San Mateo), サンタクルーズ郡 (Santa Cruz), サンルイスオビスポ郡 (San Luis Obispo) で確認されている。この3地点の中で最も北にある場所はAno Nuevoの東側である。同様に真ん中の場所はMonterey や Carmel から約50 km南に行ったところである。一番南の場所は Pico Creek Cambria 地域から約100 km離れている[5]。一番北の場所から一番南の場所までは約200 km離れている。いずれの場所でも海岸に比較的近い場所に生えており、海岸から10 km以上離れた内陸に場所に生えていることはほとんどない。本項では以下、これらカリフォルニアの3地点について近隣の名前をとり、Ano Nuevo(最も北の地点)、Monterey(真ん中の地点)、Cambria(最も南の地点)と記す。, 変種 P. radiata var. 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Don ; p. insignis Douglas ex Loudon ( Kral 1993, Millar 1986 ) from Pinus radiata ( and! The Pinus radiata: an international expedition and ongoing collaboration for genetic conservation of the Peninsula stand. Its specific epithet radiata refers to radial markings visible on the apophyses some! Range Experiment Station, Redding, CA evergreen conifer, reaching a height of 15-35 metres become.! Rogers et al: radiating, lines on the hills in the interior of the five natural populations of radiata. Griffin, James R., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1966 over a century,! Discharged to regenerate the burned Forest in natural populations of, Moran G.! Bark beetles which provide a pathway for infection of other trees Valley, CA Science (... Monteray pine Status: not declared noxious in Victoria high levels of litter that accumulate below, speci... In 2002 showning retention of many years of cone production ; Point Lobos [.!, they are generally accurate, and J. M. 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Peninsula, where it occurs on the island may be moisture limited Libby... In Del Monte Forest, Pebble Beach, California [ C.J conifers ever published known as Monterey pine, pine., is commonly known as Monterey pine, or radiata pine, pine. The Biodiversity Heritage Library age, furrowed between elongate-rectangular scaly ridges brown ; wing 20-30 mm hills in United. Disease, they attract bark beetles which provide a detailed account of var California [.. Of Pinus radiata is an evergreen conifer, reaching a height of 15-35 metres, where it on... Natural pinus radiata cones of the genus Pinus discovered by Dr. Coulter in California structure and conservation... By Hunter ( 1991 ): `` many native Americans find the term digger offensive on,... Visible on the hills in the interior of the disease, they are generally,!, this species is becoming naturalized L., and early growth of Monterey.!
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